Environment, GS-3, Uncategorized

The skeleton of the Paris agreement

  1. adopted a goal of “well below 2 degrees C” for temperature rise, and instituting a regime of financing of developing economies to help make the transition
  2. It is scheduled to go into effect from 2020, is the system of voluntary pledges, or nationally determined contributions made by individual countries to peak their greenhouse gas emissions
  3. The UNFCCC principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities ensuring equity is incorporated into the Paris Agreement to provide developing countries a cushion
  4. Text addressed the concerns raised by India in all areas — mitigation of carbon emissions, adaptation to climate change, financing, technology development and transfer, capacity building and transparency
  5. The Paris Agreement requires developed countries to raise finances with $100 billion per year as the floor by 2020, to help developing nations in both mitigation and adaptation activities, while other nations are encouraged to provide funding voluntarily.
  6. The Paris Agreement also establishes a system of technology transfer for developing countries, through a new technology framework, for both reduction of their carbon emissions and adaptation programmes.
  7. It will require countries to regularly provide a standardised national inventory of manmade greenhouse gas emissions by sources and the ways in which they are being removed – such as through artificial carbon capture, and natural trapping of carbon in forests and so on.
  8. Every five years there shall be an assessment of how the emission reduction actions of all countries collectively are stacking up against the goal of keeping temperatures under control.
  9. As the Paris agreement kicks off from 2020, there is a five year gap where the existing arrangements continue. No one now expects any great climate action from the developed world in these five years
  10. Countries shall be able to provide a country-driven plan for adaptation and seek finance from the developed world for it – not really get it commensurate to ones’ needs though.
  11. Market mechanism: Countries that wish to opt in can become part of a global market-based mechanism to reduce emissions. This will now allow a global carbon-trade providing countries chances to take credit for emission reductions against their own targets by paying for it in countries where emission reduction is cheaper to achieve.
  12. Loss and Damage: There shall be a continuing Loss and Damage mechanism which will help countries collaborate to deal with increasing extreme weather events, slow onset climate events and other climate changes that lead to loss and damage. (But there is going to be very little money for this and countries have forgone their right to file for compensation or liability in future against this provision.)


The preamble to the Paris Agreement says climate change is a common concern of humankind, and when countries take action, they must respect, promote and consider their obligations on human rights, right to health, rights of indigenous peoples, local communities, migrants, children, persons with disabilities and people in vulnerable situations, the right to development, gender equality, empowerment of women and inter-generational equity

2 thoughts on “The skeleton of the Paris agreement”

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