GS-1, GS-2, Social Issue, Uncategorized

Splendid decade, human development in India

  1. India’s ranking on Human Development Index (HDI) rose by a notch in 2014 — to 130 th  from 131st a year earlier.
  2. With a score of 0.609 on HDI, India stands well below the average score of 0.630 for countries in the medium human development group.
  3. But it is marginally above the South Asian countries’ average score of 0.607. India stands higher than neighbours Bangladesh and Pakistan but lower than countries like Namibia, Guatemala and Tajikistan, even Iraq.human-development-index-diagram-1024gii20componentsgiinew-picturemdpi
  4. After adjusting for inequality, India’s HDI for 2014 falls from 0.609 to 0.435, indicating a loss of almost 29 per cent due to inequality in the distribution of the HDI dimension indices.
  5. life expectancy at birth in India has over the past decade risen from 64.5 years (in 2005) to 68 years in 2014.
  6. mean years of schooling have increased from 4.8 to 5.4 over the same period
  7. During these 10 years, per-capita incomes in India have risen significantly, from $3239 to $5497 (at 2011 purchasing-power parity).
  8. On the gender development index (GDI), with a value of 0.795, India ranks behind Bangladesh (0.917), Namibia, Guatemala, even Tajikistan
  9. On the gender inequality index (GII), India fares poorly in 2014, standing 130th among 155 countries, well behind Bangladesh and Pakistan, which are ranked 111 th  and 121 st , respectively.
  10. 12.2 per cent of Parliament seats are held by females. The comparable proportion is 20 per cent for Bangladesh, and 19.7 per cent for Pakistan.
  11. only 27 per cent of adult women have achieved education up to at least the secondary level.
  12. Compared with India’s 190, MMR for both Pakistan and Bangladesh is lower at 170.
  13. According to multidimensional poverty index (MPI), 55.3 per cent of India’s population were multidimensionally poor in 2005-06, while another 18.2 per cent lived near multidimensional poverty.

However, since these estimates are based on data that are almost a decade old, the country’s standing as on date is likely to be better than that estimated in the report.

  1. When the World Bank decided to raise its global poverty line from $1.25 a day (in Purchasing Power Parity, or PPP, terms) to $1.90 in October and update the data for countries, it showed among other things that India had witnessed the fastest-ever decrease in the percentage of its population below the poverty line between 2009 and 2011.
  2. India’s Human Development Index value went from 0.462 to 0.609 between 2000 and 2014, a far higher increase than in the previous 15-year period. This was driven by improved economic growth and increase in life expectancy as a result of improved health care, and less so from improvements in educational outcomes, which have been harder to achieve, especially for women.
  3. If India’s women were their own country, they would be 30 ranks lower on the HDI than the country as a whole is now, with far worse educational outcomes dragging them down.
  4. Indian women are at a particular disadvantage in the workforce; the high proportion (up to 39 per cent of GDP by one estimate) of unpaid care work that falls on women alone pushes them out of the workforce, resulting in one of the world’s lowest female labour force participation rates.
  5. Coming at a time when there is a fear of social sector budget cuts, these reports show that India must build on its human development successes with better redistributive justice.

Thank You!

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