Environment, GS-3, Uncategorized

Differences in definition in Environment section

Difference between a Reserved area and a Protected area?

Rights to all activities like hunting, grazing, etc. in reserved forests are banned unless specific orders are issued otherwise. In protected areas, rights to activities like hunting and grazing are sometimes given to communities living on the fringes of the forest, who sustain their livelihood partially or wholly from forest resources or products

Thus, typically reserved forests enjoy a higher degree of protection with respect to protected forests. However, it is possible that certain protected forests may enjoy more protection with respect to certain reserved forests

*Difference between Sanctuary and National Park?

The difference between a Sanctuary and a National Park mainly lies in the vesting of rights of people living inside. Unlike a Sanctuary, where certain rights can be allowed, in a National Park, no rights are allowed. No grazing of any livestock shall also be permitted inside a National Park while in a Sanctuary, the Chief Wildlife Warden may regulate, control or prohibit it.

*Difference between a Conservation Reserve and Community Reserve?

Conservation Reserves: can be declared by the State Governments in any area owned by the government, particularly the areasadjacent to National Parks and Sanctuaries and those areas which link one Protected Area with another. Such declaration should be made after having consultations with the local communities.

Community Reserves : can be declared by the State Government in any private or community land, not comprised within a National Park, Sanctuary or a Conservation Reserve, where an individual or acommunity has volunteered to conserve wildlife and its habitat.



Some basic information.

1. National Parks, Sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves are covered under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 These protected areas focus on conservation on flora/fauna (ie.not for animals only).

2.All of the above are notified by state governments(even National Parks except that of Union Territories.)
The central government is involved in the notification only if the protected area includes territorial waters or when the land belongs to the Central government.

3.boundaries of National Parks and Conservation Reserves cannot be altered except by a law passed by the State Legislature

4. Biosphere Reserves are not specifically defined by any Parliamentary law, but derived from UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere Program (1972)

5.Tiger Reserves are also legally protected areas, covered under theWildlife (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006. These are also notified by state governments, but on the recommendation of a Central Authority- the National Tiger Conservation Authority.

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