Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP)
It is a modified programme of erstwhile:
1. Drought Prone Areas Programme (DPAP),
2.Desert Development Programme (DDP) and
3. Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP) of the Department of Land Resources.
This consolidation is for optimum use of resources, sustainable outcomes and integrated planning. The scheme was launched during 2009-10.
Main objectives of the IWMP:
Restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water.
The outcomes are prevention of soil erosion, regeneration of natural vegetation, rain water harvesting and recharging of the ground water table.
This enables multi-cropping and the introduction of diverse agro-based activities, which help to provide sustainable livelihoods to the people residing in the watershed area.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Program:
Rationale and Objectives
AIBP was specifically started because a large number of river valley projects – both major and medium – have spilled from plan to plan, mainly because of financial constraints of state govermnents. Some of these projects were in an advanced stage of construction and could provide irrigation benefits in four or five agricultural seasons. The completion of these projects, however, was beyond the resources capability of the State Govermnents.
The assistance provided was entirely in the form on loan in the beginning but later a grant component was also added in 2005.
Evaluation of AIBP Programme
Creating irrigation potential and making it actually deliver are two different things. If we look at the CAG and PAC reports, we find that this scheme has neither achieved desired results nor was saved from irregularities. In fact, a 2011 PAC report called it a big scam, bigger than many others.
Why these schemes fail?
Unless there is a strong monitoring system, such schemes easily fall prey to glaring deficiencies and irregularities resulting into time and cost over runs. The key reasons as to why both CAD and AIBP schemes failed to deliver is that the work is confined to construction of the main canal. Unless distributory network is properly in place, the main canal is useless. Poor planning and lack of proper monitoring by Central Water resources ministry has been main reason for these under achievements.
Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) has been formulated amalgamating ongoing schemes viz.
Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) of Ministry of Water Resources, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation;
Integrated Watershed Management Programme (IWMP) of Department of Land Resources; and
On Farm Water Management (OFWM) component of National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.
PMKSY is to be implemented in an area development approach, adopting decentralized state level planning and projectised execution, allowing the states to draw their irrigation development plans based on district/blocks plans with a horizon of 5 to 7 years.
All the States and Union Territories including North Eastern States are covered under the programme.
(special focus on water harvesting, water management and crop alignment for farmers and grass root level field functionaries.)