Vienna Convention can mean any of a number of treaties signed in Vienna. Notable are:
- several treaties and conventions resulted from the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) which redrew the map of Europe, only partially restoring the pre-Napoleonic situation, and drafted new rules for international relations
- Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961)
- Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (1963)
- Vienna Convention on Consular Relations (1963)
- Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969)
- Vienna Convention on Succession of States in respect of Treaties (1978)
- United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (1980), a uniform international sales law
- Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985)
- Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations (1986)
- United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988)
- Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (on the Nuclear Program of Iran) (2015)
What is Vienna Convention?
Inked in 1961,Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (VCDR) is an international treaty accepted by 189 states. The VCDR refers to a framework for diplomatic relations between various independent countries. It specifies the privileges of a diplomatic mission that enable diplomats to perform their function without fear.
As per VCDR, certain individuals get diplomatic immunity depending on their rank and the amount of immunity they need without any legal harassment from the host nation.
How Pakistan violated Vienna Convention in Kulbhushan Jadhav’s case?
- Without informing India about Kulbhushan Jadhav’s arrest: Pakistan clearly violated Vienna Convention by not informing of Jadhav’s arrest. Jadhav, a former Indian naval officer, had been sentenced to death last month by a Pakistani military court on grounds of spying. He was arrested last year but India was unaware about his arrest. On May 8, India contested the move and dragged Pakistan to the ICJ for refusing consular access to Jadhav and for violating the Vienna Convention on consular relations.
- India was denied consular access 16 times by Pakistan: India is contending that Pakistan’s announcement of the death sentence was in contravention of Vienna convention on consular relations as India was denied consular access 16 times by Pakistan.
Vienna Convention on Consular Relations-
The Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 is an international treaty that defines a framework for consular relations between independent states. A consul normally operates out of an embassy in another country, and performs two functions:
(1) protecting in the host country the interests of their countrymen, and
(2) furthering the commercial and economic relations between the two states.
While a consul is not a diplomat, they work out of the same premises, and under this treaty they are afforded most of the same privileges, including a variation of diplomatic immunity called consular immunity.