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Today’s important articles/news in various newspapers (14th December)

Dear aspirants, following are the links of various articles taken from various newspapers. Click the link to read further. To get notification, follow the blog. Thank you

1. Disqualification moves

Prelims: 10th Schedule, 52nd Amendment
Mains: Anti-defection and freedom of speech for MPs inside Parliament

The objective of the landmark anti-defection law of 1985 was to enhance the credibility of the country’s polity by addressing rampant party-hopping by elected representatives for personal and political considerations.

2. Two myths about automation

Mains: Jobless growth

What is automation?

  1. Automation can be defined as the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance
  2. In other words, Automation or automatic control, is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat treating ovens, switching on telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications and vehicles with minimal or reduced human intervention, with some processes have been completely automated

Reports on Automation

  1. According to a report, Automation Will Eliminate 9% Of US Jobs in 2018
  2. And one-third Of US workers could be jobless by 2030 due to Automation
  3. Reports like these leave the impression that technological progress and job destruction are accelerating dramatically (First Myth)
  4. But there is no evidence of either trend

Are jobs really at risk?

  1. Everyone thinks they know is that previously safe jobs are now at risk (second myth)
  2. Once upon a time, it was possible to argue that robots would displace workers engaged in routine tasks, but not the highly skilled and educated
  3. In particular, machines, are not capable of tasks in which empathy, compassion, intuition, interpersonal interaction, and communication are central
    Automation in law
  4. Machines are already more efficient than legal associates at searching for precedents
  5. But an attorney attuned to the personality of her client still plays an indispensable role in advising someone contemplating a messy divorce whether to negotiate, mediate, or go to court
  6. Likewise, an attorney’s knowledge of the personalities of the principals in a civil suit or a criminal case can be combined with Big Data and analytics when the time comes for jury selection
  7. The job is changing, not disappearing
    Automation in medical field
  8. It’s not that nurses’ aides are being replaced by healthcare robots; rather, what nurses’ aides do is being redefined
  9. And what they do will continue to be redefined as those robots’ capabilities evolve from getting patients out of bed to giving physical therapy sessions and providing emotional succour to the depressed and disabled
  10. Thus, the coming technological transformation won’t entail occupational shifts on the scale of the Industrial Revolution
  11. Important concern: But it will be more important than ever for people of all ages to update their skills and renew their training continuously, given how their occupations will continue to be reshaped by technology

What is the real problem?

  1. In the US, board membership for workers’ representatives, strong unions, and government regulation of private-sector training are not part of the prevailing institutional formula
  2. As a result, firms treat their workers as disposable parts, rather than investing in them (for their skill development)
  3. And government does nothing about it

What is the solution?

  1. Instead of a “tax reform” that allows firms to expense their capital outlays immediately, why not give companies tax credits for the cost of providing lifelong learning to their employees?

3. 119 nations back move to remove barriers limiting women’s participation in trade

Nearly three-fourths of the 164-member World Trade Organisation (WTO) have supported a declaration seeking women’s economic empowerment by expeditiously removing barriers to trade, a decision that the global body termed as history-making.

Prelims level: Buenos Aires Declaration on Women and Trade, WTO
Mains level: Efforts across world for Women empowerment

Buenos Aires Declaration on Women and Trade

  1. Nearly three-fourths of the 164-member World Trade Organisation (WTO) have supported a declaration seeking women’s economic empowerment by expeditiously removing barriers to trade,
  2. India stayed away from declaration, opposing the linking of gender and trade and said that such issues should be discussed outside WTO

What will declaration do?

  1. WTO members and observers supporting the Declaration have specifically agreed to explore and find ways to best tackle women’s general lack of access to trade financing and sub-optimal participation of women in public procurement markets
  2. Inclusion of women-led businesses, in particular, small firms in value chains has also been identified as a theme related to trade and the economic empowerment of women

4. A tale of two Metro rails

A comparison of two projects with opposite outcomes has many lessons to offer for the infrastructure road map.

Mains: Infrastructure of GS Paper 3

5. Health tips

Instead of cancelling hospital licences, bring in patient centric laws, institutional capacity to enforce them.

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