GS-1, Prelims Paper analysis, Uncategorized

UPSC Prelims Modern Indian History Analysis

Modern Indian History has a very vast syllabus and now a days not more than 7 – 8  <average 7 questions in last 5 years> questions are asked from that portion.

Weightage given since 2009

  • 2017 – 7
  • 2016 – 6
  • 2015 – 8
  • 2014 – 5
  • 2013 – 6
  • 2012 – 8
  • 2011 – 9
  • 2010 – 11
  • 2009 – 12

Most of the questions are very easy questions from repeated topics. Our target should be not to do PhD on every topic but to get easy questions right. It’s important that reading should be purposeful, not cover to cover reading of history books.

After every question, I have mentioned some learning objectives – things which are the most important  from exam point of view, things which have been asked again and again. You have to learn them all without any exception.

Key insights from the analysis 

  1. Average number of questions asked in last 5 years is 7 and almost every question is solvable with decent knowledge and logic
  2. Lots of questions and statements are repeated year after year <solve past 23-24 year history without fail> (Purchase Disha publication past years Papers book
  3. More than questions, topics are repeated year after year
  4. Even when you don’t know all the options, still you can find right answer easily <importance of reading all the options>
  5. UPSC doesn’t ask questions which need remembering very intricate yet very useless details <for instance, it wound’t ask number of members in Viceroy’s executive council or legislative council but broad details and trends should be known – number increasing or decreasing>

Most important topics

  1. Cabinet Mission plan, Cripss mission, GOI act 195, GOI act 1919, GOI act 1909, Victoria proclamation 1858, charter act of 1813, regulating act of 1773
  2. Quit India movement, Civil Disobedience movement, Non cooperation movement, Rowlatt Satyagraha, Swadeshi movement
  3. Gandhi’s first three movements
  4. Imp. sessions of congress <covered in titbits>
  5. Annie Besant, Sarojini Naidu, Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Arya Samaj
  6. Economic critque of colonialism
  7. Reforms of Lord Cornwallis
  8. Land revenue system – Zamindari, Ryoywari and Mahalwari
  9. Munda and Santhal revolt, Bardoi Satyagraha, Tebhagha and Telangana movement, Eka movement, Indigo movement

Summary of all the chapters of Modern India book by Spectrum Publication is must. You must learn every point written there by heart.

Once you have done that-

  1. Learn about imp. things about all governor generals <refer spectrum >
  2.  Arrival of Portuguese, French, Dutch and British <OLD NCERT modern India 1st 2 chapters would do>
  3. Peasant, Tribal and Working class revolts, Lower class movement <Periyar, Vaikom Satyagraha, Narayan Guru, Satyashidha Samaj, Ambedkar>
  4. Socio – religious reform movement <go through the summary plus all the facts about Ram Mohan Roy, Dayanand Saraswati >

In this series we would be covering past 7 years papers <59 questions> So, you would be best served if you could at least solve the history portion of prelims from 1993 onward. There would be some 150 questions and they would serve you better than any prelims test series of this world.

Without taking any more time, let’s look at modern history portion of prelims 2017

Q.1) Who among the following was/were associated with the introduction of Ryotwari Settlement in India during the British rule?
1. Lord Cornwallis
2. Alexander Reed
3. Thomas Munro
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • Phase-I: Lord Cornwallis: Permanent settlement system (1793). So, #1 is wrong.
  • Phase-IV: Thomas Munro: Ryotwari system, so #3 is right.
  • Only C option fits this way.

Learning: UPSC’s favorite area to ask land revenue system.

Q.2. Consider the following pairs:
1. Radhakanta Deb: First President of the British Indian Association
2. Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty: Founder of the Madras Mahajana Sabha
3. Surendranath Banerjee: Founder of the Indian Association
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • Madras Mahajansabha (1884): M.Viraghavachari , B.Subramaniya Aiyer and P. Ananda Charlu. So pair #2 is wrong, this eliminates “C” and “D”. We are left with “A” or “B”.
  • India Association (1876): Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose. So, #3 is right. Only Option B fits this combination.

Learning: Read about political association before formation of Congress.

Q.3). In the context of Indian history, the principle of “Dyarchy (diarchy)” refers to
(a) Division of the central legislature into two houses.
(b) Introduction of double government i.e., Central and State governments.
(c) Having two sets of rulers; one in London and another in Delhi.
(d) Division of the subjects delegated to the provinces into two categories.

Government of India act 1919 provided for dyarchy in provinces i.e. provincial subjects were classified into two parts 1) transferred and 2) reserved.

Leaning: GOI 1919 and GOI 1935 and its features

Q.4). With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events :
1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
2. Quit India Movement launched
3. Second Round Table Conference

What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events ?
(a) 1-2-3
(b) 2-1-3
(c) 3-2-1
(d) 3-1-2

  • 2nd RTC: 1931, September to December
  • Quit India movement: 1942, August.
  • RIN Mutiny: 1946, 18th February

Learning: Dont try to remember years but definitely students are expected to know important events in chronological way.

Q.5). The object of the Butler Committee of 1927 was to?
(a) Define the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments.
(b) Define the powers of the Secretary of State for India.
(c) Impose censorship on national press.
(d) Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.

A brief History of Modern India, Spectrum Publications, Chapter 12- The Indian States, Page 322:

The Butler Committee (1927) was set up to examine the nature of relationship between the states and Government. Butler Committee is not as famous as Simon Commission, which is also tied with same year 1927.

Q.6) . The Trade Disputes Act of 1929 provided for
(a) the participation of workers in the management of industries.
(b) arbitrary powers to the management to quell industrial disputes.
(c) an intervention by the British Court in the event of a trade dispute.
(d) a system of tribunals and a ban on strikes.

Spectrum, Chapter 15:
TDA 1929 made compulsory the appointment of made compulsory the appointment of Courts of Inquiry and Consultation Boards for settling industrial disputes; It forbade trade union activity of coercive or purely political nature and even sympathetic strikes. So accordingly, “D” is the fitting answer.

Q.7) . Consider the following statements:
1. The Factories Act, 1881 was passed with a view to fix the wages of industrial workers and to allow the workers to form trade unions.
2. N.M. Lokhande was a pioneer in organizing the labour movement in British India.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Lord Ripon introduced the Factory Act of 1881 to improve the service condition of the factory workers in India. The Act banned the appointment of children below the age of seven in factories. It reduced the working hours for children. It made compulsory for all dangerous machines in the factories to be properly fenced to ensure security to the workers.

Learning: Remember some important GG and viceroys and their roles.

Prelims 2016

Q.1). The `Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ were adopted as methods of struggle for the first time during the
(a) agitation against the Partition of Bengal
(b) Home Rule Movement
(c) Non-Cooperation Movement
(d) visit of the Simon Commission to India

Swadeshi and Boycott started against Partition of Bengal in 1905. Let’s crosscheck other options as well:
(b) Home Rule Movement: 1916 it started, the demand was of ‘home rule’
(c) Non-Cooperation Movement: 1919, after Gandhi arrived, against removal of khalifa, Punjab wrongs and swaraj
(d) visit of the Simon Commission to India: 1928

Learning: Swadeshi movement, Home Rule movement, NCM , CDM , Simon Commission and difference between them regarding objectives, approaches, background, outcomes, personalities involvement etc.

Q.2) . The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were related to 
(a) social reforms
(b) educational reforms
(c) reforms in police administration
(d) constitutional reforms

Learning: GOI 1919 and difference with GOI 1909.

Q.3) Consider the following :
1. Calcutta Unitarian Committee
2. Tabernacle of New Dispensation
3. Indian Reform Association

Keshab Chandra Sen is associated with the establishment of which of the above?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

In 1881, Keshab Chandra Sen established Naba Bidhan ( New Dispensation) meaning new universalist religion after having differences within Brahmo Samaj. He was also part of Indian reform association to legalize Brahmo marriage and to fix minimum age of marriage.

Learning: Know about various religious and social movement. Spectrum is the good source.

Q.4). What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?
(a) Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto
(b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government
(c) Foundation of Muslim League
(d) Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress

  1. Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto: it was introduced in 1909, Morley-Minto Reforms, it took place “AFTER” The split, hence irrelevant.
  1. Foundation of Muslim League: Established in 1907, but not related to split among congress. Irrelevant.
  2. Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress: In 1907, the extremists wanted either Tilak or Lajpat Rai to be president, so when Rasbehari Ghose was announced as president, the extremist resorted to violence. Hence Surat Split. “D” is also wrong.

Learning: Bengal partition, Surat Split and please remember INC president also during these periods like in 1905, 1906, 1907.

Q.5) . The plan of Sir Stafford Cripps envisaged that after the Second World War
(a) India should be granted complete independence
(b) India should be partitioned into two before granting independence
(c) India should be made a republic with the condition that she will join the Commonwealth
(d) India should be given Dominion status

Cripps proposed to give dominion status to India after WW2. Let’s check other options:

  1. India should be granted complete independence: Given in Mountbatten Plan: Youtube HFS12/P3
  2. India should be partitioned into two before granting independence: Youtube HFS12/P3
  3. India should be made a republic with the condition that she will join the Commonwealth: This decision was made after independence by the constituent assembly.

Learning: Crips mission, August offer, Shimla Conference, Cabinet Mission, Rajagopalachari Formula and their chronological orders.

Q.6) . Satya Shodhak Samaj organized 
(a) a movement for upliftment of tribals in Bihar
(b) a temple-entry movement in Gujarat
(c) an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra
(d) a peasant movement in Punjab

Learning: Know about various religious and social movement. Spectrum is the good source.

Prelims 2015

1. With reference to Rowlatt Satyagraha, which of the following statements is/are correct?

    1. The Rowlatt Act was based on the recommendations of the ‘Sedition Committee’
    2. In Rowlatt Satyagraha Gandhiji tried to use the Home Rule League
    3. Demonstrations against the Simon Commission coincided with the Rowlatt Satyagraha

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • Rowlatt act is asked time and time again
  • You know Rowlatt act protests happened in 1919 (jalliah wallah bagh) while Simon commission came to see the workings of GOI Act, 1919 in 1928 so 3rd is wrong. Eliminate 3rd
  • Now look at 2, home rule league movement started in 1916 and Gandhiji did use volunteers of home rule league

Learning – Rowlatt act, Jalliah Wallah bagh massacres, Himalayan blunder

2. Who of the following was/were economic critic/critics of colonialism in India?

    1. Dadabhai Naoroji
    2. Subramania Iyer
    3. C. Dutt

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • Again multiple times it has been asked. Naoroji and Dutt you all know.
  • 1 and 3 only in 1 option
  • This question was asked in CAPF 2016 also <indirect repeat, books written were asked>

Learning – books written by Nairoji and Dutt

  1. With reference to Congress Socialist Party, consider the following statements:
    1. It advocated the boycott of British goods and evasion of taxes.
    2. It wanted to establish the dictatorship of proletariat.
    3. It advocated separate electorate for minorities and oppressed classes.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 3 only

(c) 1, 2 and 3

(d) None

  • Separate electorate were demanded only by Muslim league and Ambedkar
  • No party would advice evasion of taxes. As a protest, it can ask you not to pay taxes or not to pay illegal due but not to evade that is hide and not pay taxes
  • CSP is not communistic but socialist so no question of dictatorship

Learning – Formation of Congress socialist party, formation of Swarajya party, formation of liberal party , their leaders, point of differences with main congress party

  1. The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined

(a) the separation of power between the judiciary and the legislature

(b)the jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments

(c)the powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy

(d)None of the above

  • A and c are bogus options
  • It introduced dyarchy in states. So among provincial subject, some transferred to popularly elected ministers in state. As there was a provincial list, it defined jurisdiction of central and provincial govt
  • Covered in titbit

Learning – GOI act 1909, 1919 and 1935

  1. Who of the following organized a march on the Tanjore coast to break the Salt Law in April 1930?

(a) V.O Chidambaram Pillai

(b) C. Rajagopalachari

(c) K. Kamaraj

(d) Annie Besant

  • You have to remember the name, Dandi march is way too important
  • BTW, V.O.C.P had differences with Gandhi and had withdrawn from congress in 1920, more of a labor leader later

6. Consider the following statements :

  1. The first woman President of the Indian National Congress was Sarojini Naidu.
  2. The first Muslim President of the Indian National Congress was Badruddin Tyabji

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

  • Repeat question.
  • In 2014, question about Annie besant was asked and one of the statement was that she was the 1st woman president which is true
  • 2nd statement is true
  • Both covered in titbit

Learning – Give special focus to contribution of women

7. With reference to cabinet mission, which of the following statements is/are correct?

  1. It recommended a federal government.
  2. It enlarged the powers of the Indian courts.
  3. It provided for more Indians in the ICS

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 1 and 3

(d) None

  • B and c are bogus options
  • More or less Indians in ICS, these were the battles fought before Gandhi came on the scene.
  • There was already federal govt under GOI act, 1935. It also provided for federal govt with very weak centre to assuage concerns of League
  • Cabinet mision plan is asked again and again

Learning – 5 pointers on cabinet mission and Cripps mission and differences

8. Which one of the following movements has contributed to a split in the Indian National Congress resulting in emergence of ‘moderates’ and ‘extremists’?

(a) Swadeshi Movement

(b) Quit India Movement

(c) Non-Cooperation Movement

(d) Civil Disobedient Movement

  • Repeat
  • Swadeshi movement led to Surat split in 1907
  • What were the main issues of conflict in swadeshi b/W moderates and extremist
  • What led to reunification of Congress
  • Why did liberal party separate from Congress

Learning – Swadeshi – boycott movement, 1906 Calcutta session and 4 resolutions, Politics played by moderates there, Formation of Muslim League, Split in congress, annulment of Partition in 1911

Pre 2014

Q.1) The Partition of Bengal made by Lord Curzon in 1905 lasted until

  1. the First World War when Indian troops were needed by the British and the partition was ended.
  2. King George V abrogated Curzon’s Act at the Royal Darbar in Delhi in 1911
  3. Gandhiji launched his Civil Disobedience Movement
  4. the Partition of India, in 1947 when East Bengal became East Pakistan
  • All other options are absolutely bogus options
  • This was the 1st real victory of nationalist movement. British had to eat humble pie and annul the partition
  • In 1911 King George V visited India and  A royal durbar was held @Delhi
  • The capital of India is transferred from Calcutta to Delhi
  • It was held three times, in 1877, 1903, and 1911 and only the last time the sovereign attended it.

Learning – When was Queen Victoria proclaimed as empress of India? 1st Darbar and Great famine of 1876 -78 and Lord Lytton, Annulment of partition and its role in reunification of Congress

Q.2) The 1929 Session of Indian, National Congress is of significance in the history of the Freedom Movement because the

  1. attainment of Self-Government was declared as the objective of the Congress
  2. attainment of Poorna Swaraj Was adopted as the goal of the Congress
  3. Non-Cooperation Movement was launched
  4. decision to participate in the Round Table Conference in London was taken
  • Repeat, covered in titbits
  • Poorna swaraj goal
  • NCM was in 1920
  • Congress did not even participate in 1st RTC. This decision was taken after Gandhi- Irwin pact

Learning – Swaraj resolution, Poorna Swaraj resolution, Dominion status v/s Independent status

Q.3) The Ghadr (Ghadar) was a

  1. Revolutionary association of Indians with headquarters at San Francisco.
  2. nationalist organization operating from Singapore
  3. militant organization with headquarters at Berlin
  4. communist movement for India’s freedom with head-quarters at Tashkent
  • Simple question. On the east coast of USA, San Francisco. There was a newspaper/ pamphlet by similar name
  • This is a very important topic for this year as PM of Canada apologised officially for the incident

Learning – Komagata Maru incident, Canadian PM apology, failure of Gadar movement, name of most prominent leaders of this movement

Q.4) What was/were the object/objects of Queen Victoria’s Proclamation (1858)?

  1. To disclaim any intention to annex Indian States
  2. To place the Indian administration under the British Crown
  3. To regulate East India Company’s trade with India

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
  • Regulation of trade had already been done. Now politically directly under crown
  • The announcement reversed Lord Dalhousie’s pre-war policy of political unification through princely state annexation <doctrine of lapse>

Learning – act of 1773, 1813 and this proclamation very important, Doctrine of lapse, first state to fall under doctrine of lapse, doctrine of subsidiary alliance, first state to fall prey to doctrine of subsidiary alliance, Contribution of Lord Dalhousie to India

Q.5) The Radcliffe Committee was appointed to

  1. solve the problem of minorities in India
  2. give effect to the Independence Bill
  3. delimit the boundaries between India and Pakistan
  4. enquire into the riots in East Bengal

Simple – Radcliffe was the jurist hence the boundary known by his name

Learning – how was the decision to go to Pakistan or stay with India taken? McMahon line and Shimla accord, LOC v/s LAC v/s AGPL, Durand line

Prelims 2013

Q.1) With reference to Indian History, the Members of the Constituent Assembly from the Provinces were:

(a) directly elected by the people of those Provinces

(b) nominated by the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League

(c) elected by the Provincial Legislative Assemblies

(d) selected by the Government for their expertise in constitutional matters

  • Question repeated in CAPF 2016
  • Indirect election it was <one of the criticism that members were not even elected by people. In fact even members of provincial assembly who elected them were themselves elected by jut 10% of the voting age population as the Franchise was very limited>

Learning – Imp. committees of constituent assembly, Cabinet mission plan and interim cabinet

Q.2) The people of India agitated against the arrival of Simon Commission because

  1. Indians never wanted the review of the working of the Act of 1919
  2. Simon Commission recommended the abolition of  Dyarchy (Diarchy) in the Provinces
  3. there was no Indian member in the Simon Commission
  4. the Simon Commission suggested the partition of the country

Very simple, covered in titbit

Learning – Why did Simon commission even visited India, Recommendation of Simon commission, Nehru report in response to Simon commission, Controversy on Nehru Report, J.L. Nehru’s objection to Nehru report, Jinnah’s objection to Nehru report, Gandhi- Irwin pact

Q.3) Quit India Movement was launched in response to

  1. Cabinet Mission Plan
  2. Cripps Proposals
  3. Simon Commission Report
  4. Wavell Plan
  • Quit India movement was launched in aug 1942
  • Cabinet mission in 1946 -wrong
  • Wavell plan or Shimla conference – 1945 – wrong
  • Simon Comission report – after 1928, before 1932
  • Cripps mission – March 1942, answer is obvious

Learning – Cripps proposals, proposed dominion or independent status? Why did it fail? Why was Cripps even sent to India?, Post dated cheque on failing bank?, Failure of Wavell plan?, Learn sequence o events from 2nd world war carefully, august offer, Rajgoplachari plan, Mount Baton plan and all

Q.4) The demand for the Tebhaga Peasant Movement in Bengal was for

  1. the reduction of the share of the landlords from one-half of the crop to one-third
  2. the grant of ownership of land to peasants as they were the actual cultivators of the land
  3. the uprooting of Zamindari system and the end of serfdom
  4. writing off all peasant debts
  • Covered in titbit
  • tebhaga means 3 parts
  • in 1946 the sharecroppers of Bengal began to assert that they would no longer pay a half share of their crops to Jotedars but only 1/3rd and that before division
  • the crop would be stored in their khamars (Godowns) and not that of the Jotedars

Learning – important peasant revolts, working class movements, Bardoli Satyagaraha, Eka movement, Indigo revolt

Q.5) Annie Besant was

  1. responsible for starting the Home Rule Movement
  2. the founder of the Theosophical Society
  3. Once the President of the Indian National Congress

Select the correct statement/statements using the codes given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
  • Tilak started Home Rule league in April 1916 while Annie Besant launched her Home Rule league in September 1916
  • Theosophical Society was founded by Madam Blavatsky and Colonel Olcott 1875.Annie Besant joined the team much later, in 1889
  • She was in fact 1st woman president of INC. This fact has been asked many times

Learning – Theosophical society, contribution of Annie Besant

Q.6) The Ilbert Bill controversy was related to the

  1. imposition restrictions the Indians of certain to carry arms by Indians
  2. imposition of restrictions on newspapers and magazines published in Indian languages
  3. removal of disqualifications imposed on the Indian magistrates with regard to the trial of the Europeans
  4. removal of a duty on imported cotton cloth
  • Earlier Indian judges could not try Europeans
  • The Illbert Bill (1883) of lord Rippon sought to empower the Indian judges to try Europeans in criminal cases.

Learning – Lord Rippon v/s Lord Lytoon, Vernacular press act, arms act, first factory act, Anglo – Afghan war, reforms brought by lord Rippon, reforms brought by lord Mayo

Pre 2012

Q.1) Consider the following statements :

The most effective contribution made by DadabhaiNaoroji to the cause of Indian National Movement was that he

  1. exposed the economic exploitation of India by the British
  2. interpreted the ancient Indian texts and restored the self-confidence of Indians
  3. stressed the need for eradication of all the social evils before anything else

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • Asked many times indirectly
  • He was a moderate congress leader who presented economic critique of colonialism.
  • He wasn’t a social reformer. You don’t read his name in social reform movement chapter obviously 2 and 3 are wrong

Learning – economic critique of colonialism, books written by Nairoji, ranade, R. C. Dutt

Q.2) Which of the following parties were established by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar?

  1. The Peasants and Workers Party of India
  2. All India Scheduled Castes Federation
  3. The Independent Labour Party

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • The Peasants and Workers Party of India was founded in 1947. The party was founded in Maharashtra by Tulsidas Jadhav, Keshavrao Jedhe and others.
  • Scheduled Castes Federation (SCF) was founded by Dr. Ambedkar in 1942 to fight for the rights of the Dalit community. SCF was the successor organization of the Independent Labour Party led by Ambedkar.

Learning – newspapers and other publication by Gandhiji in India and south Africa,  ashrams established by Gandhiji, parties established by Ambedkar

Q.3) Mahatma Gandhi undertook fast unto death in 1932, mainly because:

(a) Round Table Conference failed to satisfy Indian political aspirations

(b) Congress and Muslim League had differences of opinion

(c) Ramsay Macdonald announced the Communal Award

(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context

Very famous incident. Gandhi took fast unto death on the announcement of communal award and Poona pact was signed after that with agreement of Gandhiji and Ambedkar

Leaning – evolution of separate electorate in British Raj,  three round table conferences, participation of Congress and outcome

Q.4) Consider the following :

  1. Assessment of land revenue on the basis of nature of the soil and the quality of crops
  2. Use of mobile cannons in warfare
  3. Cultivation of tobacco and red chillies

Which of the above was/were introduced into India by the English?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2

(c) 2 and 3

(d) None

  • Tobaco was introduced by Portuguese. Everyone knows that
  • 1 was done even by Raja Todermal

Learning – things introduced by British, Portuguese and Mughals

Q.5) Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding BrahmoSamaj?

  1. It opposed idolatry.
  2. It denied the need for a priestly class for interpreting the religious texts.
  3. It popularized the doctrine that the Vedas are infallible.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below :

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 3 only

(d) 1, 2 and 3

  • 3 is wrong. That Vedas are infallible was propagated by Swami dayanand saraswati and Arya samaj
  • 2 is common theme across socioreligious reform movement
  • Exclude 3, include 2

Learning – brahmo samaj v/s arya samaj, split in brahmo samaj and Arya samaj, everything about Raja Ram Mohan Roy

Q.6) The Rowlatt Act aimed at:

(a) compulsory economic support to war efforts

(b) imprisonment without trial and summary procedures for trial

(c) suppression of the Khilafat Movement

(d) imposition of restrictions on freedom of the press

  • Repeat
  • On the recommendations of sedition committee. Imprisonment without trial. For how many months?

Learning – Rowlatt satyagraha, revolutionary terrorism/ extremism, HSRA, Yugantar, Abhinav Bharat

Q.7) The Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress (1929) is very important in history, because

  1. the Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence
  2. the rift between the extremists and moderates was resolved in that Session
  3. a resolution was passed rejecting the two-nation theory in that Session

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) I only

(b) 2 and 3

(c) 1 and 3

(d) None of the above

  • Repeat. All options are repeat
  • 1st is true poorna swaraj resolution
  • 2 is wrong, it was done in Lucknow session in 1916
  • 2 nations theory had not yet formed to merit passing a resolution rejecting the theory

Learning – Swaraj resolution, Poorna Swaraj resolution, Pakistan resolution

Q.8) During Indian freedom struggle, the National Social Conference was formed. What was the reason for its formation?

(a) Different social reform groups or organizations of Bengal region united to form a single body to discuss the issues of larger interest and to prepare appropriate petitions/representations to the government.

(b) Indian National Congress did not want to include social reforms in its deliberations and decided to form a separate body for such a purpose

(c) BehramjiMalabari and M. G. Ranade decided to bring together all the social reform groups of the country under one organization

(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context

  • was founded by M.G. Ranade and Raghunath Rao. It was virtually the social reform cell of the Indian National Congress.
  • The Conference met annually as a subsidiary convention of the Indian National Congress, at the same venue, and focused attention on social reform.
  • The Conference advocated intercaste marriages and opposed kulinism and polygamy.
  • Not very sure of the answer. B seems like the best option

Learning – Indian sociologist and societies for Indian freedom formed abroad, role of madam Bhikaji Kama and Shyamji Krishna Verma

Pre 2011

Q.1) Which one of the following observations is not true about the Quit India Movement of 1942?

(a.) It was a non-violent movement

(b.) It was led by Mahatma Gandhi

(c.) It was a spontaneous movement

(d.) It did not attract the labour class in general

  • Repeat
  • It was clearly a very violent movement and was crushed very brutally

Learning – three phases of quit India movement, parallel govt formation

Q.2) Which amongst the following provided a common factor for tribal insurrection in India in the 19th century?

(a.) Introduction of a new system of land revenue and taxation- of tribal products

(b.) Influence of foreign religious missionaries in tribal areas

(c.) Rise of a large number of money lenders, traders and revenue farmers as middlemen in tribal areas

(d.) The complete disruption of the old agrarian order of the tribal communities

  • Taxation of tribal products seems like a bogus option
  • Not every tribal area would have witnessed b and c
  • D is sum of everything

Learning – major tribal and peasant movements, santhal and munda uprising, Eka, tebehaga, telangana movement, indigo revolt, Bardoli satyagraha

Q.3) Mahatma Gandhi said that some of his deepest convictions were reflected in a book titled, “Unto this Last” and the book transformed his life. What was the message from the book that transformed Mahatma Gandhi?

(a.) Uplifting the oppressed and poor is the moral responsibility of an educated man

(b.) The good of individual is contained in the good of all

(c.) The life of celibacy and spiritual pursuit are essential for a noble life

(d.) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) are correct in this context

  • Don’t lose sleep if you don’t know the answer
  • You can read the book for essay and ethics
  1. With reference to Indian freedom struggle, Usha Mehta is well-known for:

(a.) Running the secret Congress Radio in the wake of Quit India Movement

(b.) Participating in the Second Round Table Conference

(c.) Leading a contingent of Indian National Army

(d.) Assisting in the formation of Interim Government under Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru

  • B and d wouldn’t make anyone famous
  • A is true. Last phase of quit India movement was an underground phase. Usha mehta ran secret radio from somewhere in India

Learning – stand of communists and congress socialists on word war 2 and quit India movement, working class participating in QIM v/s that in CDM

Q.5) What was the reason for Mahatma Gandhi to organize a satyagraha on behalf of the peasants of Kheda?

  1. The Administration did not suspend the land revenue collection in spite of a drought.
  2. The Administration proposed to introduce Permanent Settlement in Gujarat.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a.) 1 only

(b.) 2 only

(c.) Both 1 and 2

(d.) Neither 1 nor 2

  • Repeat, covered in titbit
  • B is bogus option
  • A is correct

Learning – Gandhiji’s first three satyagraha, other leaders involved in those satyagrahas

Q.6) The tendency for increased litigation was visible after the introduction of the land settlement system of Lord Cornwallis in 1793. The reason for this is normally traced to which of the following provisions?

(a.) Making Zamindar’s position stronger vis-a-vis the ryot

(b.)Making East India Company an overlord of Zamindars

(c.) Making judicial system more efficient

(d.)None of the (a), (b) and (c) above

  • reason was that the Court Fee was removed and now every body could drag anybody to courts.
  • The extension to right of appeal
  • Court fees were abolished
    Learning – Cornwallis code, reforms of Cornwallis

Q.7)  With reference to the period of colonial rule in India, “Home Charges” formed an important part of drain of wealth from India. Which of the following funds constituted “Home Charges”?

  1. Funds used to support the India Office in London.
  2. Funds used to pay salaries and pensions of British personnel engaged in India.
  3. Funds used for waging wars outside India by the British.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a.) 1 only

(b.) 1 and 2 only

(c.) 2 and 3 only

(d.) 1, 2 and 3

Home charges means money spent by Britain in Britain on behalf of India. They included

  1. dividends on East India Stock
  2. interest in Home debt
  3. the salaries of the officer
  4. establishments of the and building connected with the Home Department of Indian Government
  5. furlough and retired pay to members of the Indian Military and Civil Services when at Home
  6. Charges of all descriptions paid in this country connected with the British troops serving in India and
  7. portion of the cost of transporting the British troops to and from India

I am not so sure about statement 3. Funds used for waging war outside India as when British fought in wars nor do I find direct mention of it in home charges. EIC donated money to them. IMO statement 3 is wrong

Q.8) With reference to the period of Indian freedom struggle, which of the following was/were recommended by the Nehru report?

  1. Complete Independence for India.
  2. Joint electorates for reservation of seats for minorities.
  3. Provision of fundamental rights for the people of India in the Constitution.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a.) 1 only

(b.) 2 and 3 only

(c.) 1 and 3 only

(d.) 1, 2 and 3

  • Covered in tidbit
  • 1 is wrong. It demanded dominion status which was a point of disagreement b/W moderates v/s more radical young leaders like Nehru and Subhash

Learning – Nehru report, swaraj resolution, poorna swaraj resolution, dominion status offer, independence status offer

Q.9) What was the purpose with which Sir William Wedderburn and W. S. Caine had set up the Indian Parliamentary Committee in 1893?

(a.) To agitate for Indian political reforms in the House of Commons

(b.) To campaign for. the entry of Indians into the Imperial Judiciary

(c.) To facilitate a discussion on India’s Independence in the British Parliament

(d.) To agitate for the entry of eminent Indians into the British Parliament

  • D is bogus, who would demand such things
  • C is bogus. Not even Indian leaders were demanding independence at that time
  • B is also bogus. Anyone would first demand more Indians in higher Indian judiciary than imperial judiciary
  • A makes sense. Indian political reform was the favour of day then. Congress was demanding that. They also demanded same thing but this time in British parliament/ house of commons

Leading – achievement of moderates

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