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Subhash Chandra Bose joined the Disobedience Movement under the influence of Gandhiji, Although he was selected in Indian Civil Services. He became an active member of congress. In 1938 and 1939 he was also elected the President of Congress.
But he resigned from congress Presidentship and formed his Forward Block in 1940 due to differences with Gandhiji. British had held him under house arrest in Calcutta due to his activities. But in 1941 he secretly left India. He approached Russia and Germany for help in India’s freedom. He provided leadership to the Indian National Army after he went to Japan in 1943.
He organized soldiers and formed provisional government in October 1943. By the Axis powers this provisional Government was recognised. The INA attacked the North Eastern borders and even captured a portion, but they had to surrender due to Japanese biased policy and adverse weather conditions.
He provided an influential leadership and kept the spirit of nationalism burning during the slack period of national movement in India.
Bose advocated complete unconditional independence for India, whereas the All-India Congress Committee wanted it in phases, through Dominion status. Finally at the historic Lahore Congress convention, the Congress adopted Purna Swaraj (complete independence) as its motto.
Parliamentary committees increase the efficiency and expertise of Parliament. Given the volume of work and the limited time at their disposal, legislators are unable to scrutinise every matter in detail on the floor of the House.
Some of this work is entrusted to Committees, which are composed of groups of Members of Parliament (MPs).
These Committees review proposed laws, oversee activities of the executive branch, and scrutinise government expenditure. Their reports allow for informed debate in Parliament.
Committees also provide a forum to build consensus across party lines, help develop expertise in subjects, and enable consultation with independent experts and stakeholders.
In this note, we give an overview of the Parliamentary committee system in India and list some metrics to measure their effectiveness.
Committee system in India
There are broadly two kinds of committees: (a) Standing Committees; and (b) Ad-hoc Committees. Both Houses have a similar committee structure, with few exceptions. Their appointment, terms of office, functions, and procedure for conducting business is regulated as per Rules of Business of each House.
National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC)
In 2002, the NCRWC pointed out some shortcomings of the committees: (a) low attendance of MPs at meetings; (b) too many ministries under a committee; (c) norms not followed by most political parties while nominating MPs to committees; and (d) the constitution of DRSCs for a year leaves very little time for specialisations.
Recommendations of NCRWC
⋅ DRSCs should be periodically reviewed. All Bills should be referred to DRSCs. They can elicit public views and call specialist advisors. The DRSCs may finalise the second reading stage in the Committee.
⋅ Three new committees should be set up: (a) Standing Committee on National Economy to provide analysis of the national economy with resources for advisory expertise, data gathering and research facilities; (b) Standing Constitution Committee to scrutinise Constitutional Amendment Bills before they are introduced in Parliament; and (c) Committee on Legislations to oversee and coordinate legislative planning. Existing Committees on Estimates, Public Undertakings and Subordinate Legislation may not be needed. The Petitions Committee can be a supplement to the proposed office of the Lok Pal.
⋅ Major reports of all Committees should be discussed in Parliament especially in cases where there is disagreement between a Committee and the government. The recommendations of the PACs should be accorded greater weight and they should be treated as the “conscience-keepers of the nation in financial matters”.
Rather than just increased budgetary outlays, farmers need plans that will rescue them from crop failure.
While one may question the viability and immediate technical feasibility of deploying drones for human transportation, the possibilities that passenger drones present are worth exploring.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Drone Technology
Advantages of drone technology:
- Safe intelligence gathering for military
- Stealthy observation using cameras and sensors
- Able to fly under harsh conditions without risking life
- Can take pictures where humans cannot go
- Use of small cameras is convenient
Disadvantages of drone technology:
- Unmanned vehicles may not have the same reaction time as manned vehicles
- Flight actions are more difficult when using a camera and remote system
- Drones could be exploited for spying purposes which would infringe on privacy rights
- Battery power could be limited
- Camera footage is not as reliable as the naked eye
India has the resources and agency to alter strategic equations in the region. Delhi must play its cards wisely.
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