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#1. Track 1 Diplomacy:
Official discussions typically involving high-level political and military leaders and focusing on cease-fires, peace talks, and treaties and other agreements. Heads of states meet, have hi-tea, discuss issues and release joint statements etc.
#2. Track 2 Diplomacy:
Unofficial dialogue and problem-solving activities aimed at building relationships and encouraging new thinking that can inform the official process.
Since it is unofficial – you can expect to see influential academic, religious, and NGO leaders and other civil society actors who can interact more freely than high-ranking officials. Think of Baba Ramdev and Amir Khan trying to chit chat with officials of Pak Foreign ministry, cajoling them into buying an idea (hopefully for more peace and er. yoga!)
Here’s where we see the emergence of term – Track 1.5 to denote a situation in which official and non-official actors work together to resolve conflicts.
#3. Track 3 Diplomacy:
People-to-people diplomacy undertaken by individuals and private groups. It would not be further from truth if we say that the “aam aadmi” of India does not really hate his counterpart at Pakistan. Beyond the media and political blur, there are a lot of initiatives which get people closer (do we hear bollywood).
Pakistan loves our films and actors, we love their cuisine and musicians!
Normally focused at the grassroots level, this type of diplomacy often involves organizing meetings and conferences, generating media exposure, and political and legal advocacy for marginalized people and communities.
- The Supreme Court, which had ordered a review of the backlog under POCSO, found that States such as Uttar Pradesh have over 30,000 cases pending despite the child protection law coming into existence as early as 2012.
- Many States have not yet even set up Special Courts to try POCSO cases as mandated by the law.
- Additional Solicitor General Pinky Anand, for the government, informed the court about the ordinance. She submitted that it warrants investigation to be completed in two months and courts to dispose of appeals in six months, ensuring speedy justice to victims.
- But the court said the POCSO statistics showed that children and victims in many States were still waiting in the corridors of courts for justice.
- The State police chiefs should constitute special task forces to investigate cases.
- High Courts should ensure that they are tried and disposed of by the designated Special Courts under the Act.
- POCSO judges will give no adjournments and make every effort to fast-track trial.
- Witnesses should be produced in court on the day of the hearing .
- High courts should make every effort to provide a child-friendly atmosphere in tune with the spirit of the Act.
The Taj Mahal was yellow and now turning brown and green, a Supreme Court Bench of Justices Madan B. Lokur and Deepak Gupta found from photographs handed over to them by noted environmental lawyer M.C. Mehta.
River Yamuna, which used to flow nearby, has dried up. Encroachments and industries have cropped up in the neighbourhood of the white marble mausoleum. CCTVs hardly work. The government merely views the Taj as a money-making venture.
Why Has The Taj Mahal Turned Yellow Earlier?
When The Process Of Acid Rain Occurs, Sulphuric Acid Is Released Into The Air As Rain, Snow Or Fog. This Sulphuric Acid Reacts With The Calcium Present In The Stones Of The Taj Mahal To Form Gypsum, Then It Flakes Off.
Acid Rain Is The Reason For This Corrosive Action Of Acid Deposition, Which Is A Result Of Human Activities.
DNA profiling Bill
- The government has informed the Supreme Court that it will introduce a DNA profiling Bill in the Monsoon Session of the Parliament
- The government was responding to a PIL in 2012 on the use of DNA profiling for identifying unclaimed bodies, especially to match them with cold cases of missing persons
- The court said that with the competent authority undertaking to bring about a legislation there was no need for a mandamus from the Supreme Court in this issue
Uses of DNA Profiling:
Recommendations of Law Commission
- The Commission recorded that DNA profiling was indeed used for disaster victim identification, investigation of crimes, identification of missing persons and human remains and for medical research purposes
- The Commission said the procedure for DNA profiling if given statutory recognition, should be done legitimately as per constitutional provisions
- The Bill provides for the setting up of a statutory DNA Profiling Board to spell out procedures and standards to establish DNA laboratories and grant of accreditation to these labs
- The Board should also be tasked with advising the Centre and the State governments on the operation of these labs and ethical/human rights issues relating to DNA testing in consonance with international standards
- The Board should also have the responsibility to supervise, monitor, inspect and assess the laboratories
Anything which arrests India’s potential drift towards the US and its allies is good for China.
The obligations of the centre in areas such as employment, education, food security, smart cities, have increased vastly. So the centre needs a bigger, not smaller, share of the national kitty.
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