Dear aspirants, following are the links of various articles taken from various newspapers. Click the link to read further. To get notification, follow the blog. Thank you
Lynching a form of violence in which a mob, under the pretext of administering justice without trial, executes a presumed offender, often after inflicting torture and corporal mutilation. The term lynch law refers to a self-constituted court that imposes sentence on a person without due process of law.
Vigilante justice has been practiced in many countries under unsettled conditions whenever informally organized groups have attempted to supplement or replace legal procedure or to fill the void where institutional justice did not yet exist. Such conditions commonly give rise to acts of genocide.
Tehseen S. Poonawalla v. Union of India
In this case the Supreme Court has given out certain guidelines
The court observed that Any kind of act by a group of people will lead to anarchy disorder and chaos.
What are the specific guidelines
- Supreme has observed that lynching in India should be dealt by the state governments.
- Number one the state governments are required toDesignate a senior police officer not below the rank of SP as a nodal officer.
- This officer will be required to form a special task force to collect information.
- On the kind of persons who are going to commit such acts of lynching.
- Nodal officers are also required to make sure that the social media is a free of all kinds of fake news and also to ensure that social media is not used as a platform to organize such acts of vigilantism.
- And apart from this the government including the Centre and the state will be using public media platforms such as radio television and other to send the message about the consequences of taking law into the hands.
- The Supreme Court has observed that in case of an incidence of mob lynching then the jurisdictional police officer will have to first file an F I R.
- The station house officer will now intimate the nodal officer and the nodal officer has to ensure that the victims family members are not harassed.
- Further the nodal officers should also ensure that the investigation and prosecution of these cases is carried out strictly and the charge sheet is definitely filed within the prescribed time period and also the trial should be through fast track courts within six months.
- The court has also directed that upon conviction the maximum sentence is provided for variants of their is open just be avoided and the “hopes that this will act as a deterrent.
United States of America
- In US at one point of time lynching was very rampant.
- Statistics of reported lynching in the United States indicate that, between 1882 and 1951, 4,730 persons were lynched, of whom 1,293 were white and 3,437 were black.
- Lynching continued to be associated with U.S. racial unrest during the 1950s and ’60s, when civil rights workers and advocates were threatened and in some cases killed by mobs.
- In United States there was no federal law against lynching for almost a period of hundred years and it was only in 2005 that the US Senate apologised for not passing an anti lynching law.
- It is time for the government to implement the directions of the Supreme Court immediately in India we just don’t need laws to deal with such kind of deep-rooted prejudices but also it must be fought politically.
Citing historical deprivation the Centre called the Supreme Court to revisit 2006 Nagaraj ruling.
- The government began its push for providing “accelerated promotion with consequential seniority” for Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST) members in public employment.
- It was said that the Dalits are ‘presumed backward’ and are facing deprivation of sorts till date and that the state needs to take affirmative action by providing them equality of opportunity.
- The 2006 Nagaraj judgment was pronounced by a five-judge Constitution Bench.
- Following a 2006 judgment of the Supreme Court, the government cannot introduce a quota in promotion for its SC/ST employees unless they prove that the particular Dalit community is backward, inadequately represented and such a reservation in promotion would not affect the overall efficiency of public administration. The opinion of the government should also be based on quantifiable data.
- It was made clear that even if the state has compelling reasons, the state will have to see that its reservation provision does not lead to excessiveness so as to breach the ceiling limit of 50% or obliterate the creamy layer or extend reservation indefinitely
- Now, the government wants another five-judge Constitution Bench to refer the 2006 verdict to a larger Bench for a re-examination, citing the reason that the 2006 verdict had effectively created an “impossible situation” for providing accelerated promotions with consequential seniority for SC/ST communities in government services.
- Government said it wanted a total of 22.5% (15% for SC+7.5% for ST) posts reserved for promotion for SC/ST in public employment, stating, only this quantum would satisfy their need for adequate representation.
- The government objected to a creamy layer concept among the SC/ST.
- Chief Justice Misra said the three criteria in the Nagaraj judgment — backwardness, inadequacy and administrative efficiency — were “compelling reasons” so that reservation by government was not excessive. The three qualifiers were meant to prevent reservation from making an inroad into the right of equal opportunity in public employment and prevent reverse discrimination.
Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has called for imposition of import duties on telecom products outside the ambit of the Information Technology Agreement (ITA-1) and incentivising their local design and manufacturing with an aim to eliminate India’s dependence on imported telecom gear by 2022.
- Suggesting that India aim at net zero imports of telecommunications equipment by 2022, the TRAI recommended the setting up of a ₹1,000 crore fund for promoting research and innovation in the sector.
- The regulator has suggested that the progress of indigenous telecommunication equipment manufacturing be monitored by Department of Telecommunications (DoT).
- It is planned to have a dedicated unit in DoT to be made responsible for the facilitation and monitoring of telecommunication equipment design, development, and manufacturing in the country.
- It was proposed to create a Telecom Research and Development Fund (TRDF), with initial corpus of ₹1,000 crore for promoting research, innovation, standardisation, design, testing, certification and manufacturing indigenous telecom equipment.
- Subsequently, Telecom Entrepreneurship Promotion Fund(TEPF) and Telecom Manufacturing Promotion Fund(TMPF) need to be set up.
- To address security concerns, TRAI had suggested that the telecom service providers be incentivised for deploying indigenous telecom products beyond the quantities to be mandated under the preferential market access policy.
India as a signatory to the World Trade Organisation’s ITA-1 has a zero-duty commitment on 217-odd electronic items in the list. But it is under no obligation to allow duty-free imports of ICT items outside the ITA-1.
- Local manufacturing of network equipment will reduce imports and create self-reliance and job opportunities.
- Currently, India imports 90% of its requirements. If the recommendations are to be implemented, it would enable Indian telecom equipment manufacturing sector to transition from an import-dependent sector to a global hub of indigenous manufacturing.
Context: A proposal to have hubs to monitor social media traffic and trends has been withdrawn
Issue: Supreme Court had raised the fear that the Social Media Hub may create a surveillance state
Justice D.Y. Chandrachud, who is a member of the Bench led by Chief Justice Dipak Misra, had voiced the court’s apprehensions about the government’s plan, saying that this would pose a danger in a country where privacy was a fundamental right.
Social media communication hub
- The proposed social media communication hub sought to create a technology architecture that merges mass surveillance with a capacity for detecting false information being circulated on Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and even email.
- It also aimed to track real time the way social media receives news on government’s schemes and announcements and also political events.
- It was also proposed to strengthen the social media division through recruitment of social media managers to be deployed selected districts.
- The social media manager was to be entrusted with the tasks of keeping a close eye on the regional and local media, collecting data of regional media and of local events, providing content for social media and supporting media units at the regional level for social media publicity, subsequently make a daily analysis report incorporating local sentiments to be sent to region head in the PIB as well as the media hub.
A World Health Organisation (WHO) report estimated that the Swachh Bharat Mission Gramin (SBM-G) will result in preventing more than three lakh deaths due to diarrhoea and protein-energy malnutrition between 2014-October 2019.
- The report is titled “The progress report on potential health impact from increased sanitation coverage through the SBM-G”
- The research was conducted by the WHO for the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation.
- Findings of the report:
- It said that India’s rural sanitation coverage escalated to 89.07% till August 2, 2018.
- Under the SBM-G, 19 States and Union Territories were declared Open Defecation Free (ODF) and 7.9 crore toilets were built, 421 districts and more than 4.9 lakh villages were declared ODF.
- The WHO study showed that before the initiation of SBM-G, unsafe sanitation caused 199 million cases of diarrhoea annually and that by 2019, the initiative aims to achieve 100% sanitation coverage.
Thank you aspirants. To help us, Like and share us on your social media page and follow us.