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Anglo-Mysore Wars

Q. Which one of the following pairs is incorrectly matched. [OPSC2011]
 (a) First Anglo Mysore war–Defeat of Madras Government by Hyder Ali.
(b) Second Anglo Mysore war–Treaty of Mangalore.
(c) Third Anglo Mysore War–Defeat of Tipu Sultan.
(d) Fourth Anglo Mysore war–Susidairy Allaince Treaty imposed on Mysore
Answer:- (a)
Explanation:- During First Anglo Mysore war (1766-69) Hyder Ali succeded in conquering  parts of Madras  but the Madras government remained uneffected from Hyder Ali’s attack.
Q. The triple alliance against Tipu was formed by Cornwallis consisted of the following-[MPPSC 2010] 
(a) The English, Nizam and the Marathas (b) The English, Nizam and Awadh
(c) The English, Nizam and Carnatic          (d) The English, Mrathas and Carnatic
Answer:-  (a)
Explanation:-  Lord Cornwallis(1786-93) formed triple allainces with Maratha and Nizams of Hyderabad during the third Anglo-Mysore war.(1790-92).
Q. The Treaty of Serirangpattam took place in-[MPPSC 2010]
 (a) 1791
(b) 1792
 (c) 1793
(d) 1794
Answer:- (b)
Explanation:- Treaty of Serirangapatnam was signed by Tipu Sultan on one hand and British and their allies(Nizam and Maratha) on the other.The treaty marked the end of third Anglo-Mysore war and was signed in 1792.

The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of four wars between the British and the Kingdom of Mysore in the latter half of the 18th century in Southern India.

Hyder Ali (1721 – 1782)
  • Started his career as a soldier in the Mysore Army.
  • Soon rose to prominence in the army owing to his military skills.
  • He was made the Dalavayi (commander-in-chief), and later the Chief Minister of the Mysore state under Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, ruler of Mysore.
  • Through his administrative prowess and military skills, he became the de-facto ruler of Mysore with the real king reduced to a titular head only.
  • He set up a modern army and trained them along European lines.
First Anglo-Mysore War (1767 – 1769)
 Causes of the war:
  • Hyder Ali built a strong army and annexed many regions in the South including Bidnur, Canara, Sera, Malabar and Sunda.
  • He also took French support in training his army.
  • This alarmed the British.
Course of the war:
  • The British, along with the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad declared war on Mysore.
  • Hyder Ali was able to bring the Marathas and the Nizam to his side with skillful diplomacy.
  • But the British under General Smith defeated Ali in 1767.
  • His son Tipu Sultan advanced towards Madras against the English.
Result of the war:
  • In 1769, the Treaty of Madras was signed which brought an end to the war.
  • The conquered territories were restored to each other.
  • It was also agreed upon that they would help each other in case of a foreign attack.
Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780 – 1784)
Causes of the war:
  • The Marathas attacked Mysore in 1771. But the British refused to honour the Treaty of Madras and did not give support to Hyder Ali.
  • As a result, Hyder Ali’s territories were taken by the Marathas. He had to buy peace with the Marathas for a sum of Rs.36 lakh and another annual tribute.
  • This angered Hyder Ali who started hating the British.
  • When the English attacked Mahe, a French possession under Hyder Ali’s dominion, he declared war on the English in 1780.
Course of the war:
  • Hyder Ali forged an alliance with the Nizam and the Marathas and defeated the British forces in Arcot.
  • Hyder Ali died in 1782 and the war was continued by his son Tipu Sultan.
  • Sir Eyre Coote, who had earlier defeated Hyder Ali many times, ended the war inconclusively with the Treaty of Mangalore.
Result of the war:
  • As per the Treaty of Mangalore, both parties agreed to return the captured territories and prisoners to each other.

 

Third Anglo-Mysore War (1786 – 1792)

Causes of the war:

  • The British started improving their relationship with the Nizam of Hyderabad and the Marathas.
  • Tipu Sultan, who assumed control of Mysore after Hyder Ali’s death, had French help in bettering his military resources.
  • He also refused to free the English prisoners taken during the second Anglo-Mysore war as per the Treaty of Mangalore.

Course of the war:

  • Tipu declared war on Travancore in 1789. Travancore was a friendly state of the British.
  • In 1790, the Governor-General of Bengal, Lord Cornwallis declared war on Tipu.
  • Tipu was defeated in the first phase of the war and his forces had to retreat.
  • Later the English advanced towards Tipu’s capital of Seringapatam and Tipu had to bargain for peace.

Result of the war:

  • The war ended with the Treaty of Seringapatam in 1792.
  • As per the treaty, Tipu had to cede half of his kingdom to the English including the areas of Malabar, Dindigul, Coorg and Baramahal.
  • He also had to pay Rs.3 Crore as war indemnity to the British.
  • Tipu also had to surrender two of his sons as surety to the British till he paid his due.

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Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)

 

Causes of the war:

  • The Treaty of Seringapatam failed to bring peace between Tipu and the English.
  • Tipu also refused to accept the Subsidiary Alliance of Lord Wellesley.
  • Tipu aligned with the French which the British saw as a threat.

Course of the war:

  • Mysore was attacked from all four sides.
  • The Marathas and the Nizam invaded from the North.
  • Tipu’s troops were outnumbered 4:1.
  • The British secured a decisive victory at the Battle of Seringapatam in 1799.
  • Tipu died while defending the city.

Result of the war:

  • Tipu’s territories were divided between the British and the Nizam of Hyderabad.
  • The core area around Seringapatam and Mysore was restored to the Wodeyar dynasty who had been ruling Mysore before Hyder Ali became the de-facto ruler.
  • Mysore entered into a Subsidiary Alliance with the British and a British resident was placed at the Mysore Court.
  • The Kingdom of Mysore remained a princely state not directly under the British until 1947 when it chose to join the Indian Union.

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