GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

What is the difference between GSLV and PSLV?

Both PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle) and GSLV (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle) are the satellite-launch vehicles (rockets) developed by ISRO. PSLV is designed mainly to deliver the “earth-observation” or “remote-sensing” satellites with lift-off mass of up to about 1750 Kg to Sun-Synchronous circular polar orbits of 600-900 Km altitude.

The remote sensing satellites orbit the earth from pole-to-pole (at about 98 deg orbital-plane inclination). An orbit is called sun-synchronous when the angle between the line joining the centre of the Earth and the satellite and the Sun is constant throughout the orbit.

Due to their sun-synchronism nature, these orbits are also referred to as “Low Earth Orbit (LEO)” which enables the on-board camera to take images of the earth under the same sun-illumination conditions during each of the repeated visits, the satellite makes over the same area on ground thus making the satellite useful for earth resources monitoring.

Apart from launching the remote sensing satellites to Sun-synchronous polar orbits, the PSLV is also used to launch the satellites of lower lift-off mass of up to about 1400 Kg to the elliptical Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

PSLV is a four-staged launch vehicle with first and third stage using solid rocket motors and second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines. It also uses strap-on motors to augment the thrust provided by the first stage, and depending on the number of these strap-on boosters, the PSLV is classified into its various versions like core-alone version (PSLV-CA), PSLV-G or PSLV-XL variants.

The GSLV is designed mainly to deliver the communication-satellites to the highly elliptical (typically 250 x 36000 Km) Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The satellite in GTO is further raised to its final destination, viz., Geo-synchronous Earth orbit (GEO) of about 36000 Km altitude (and zero deg inclination on equatorial plane) by firing its in-built on-board engines.

Due to their geo-synchronous nature, the satellites in these orbits appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth, thus avoiding the need of a tracking ground antenna and hence are useful for the communication applications.

Two versions of the GSLV are being developed by ISRO. The first version, GSLV Mk-II, has the capability to launch satellites of lift-off mass of up to 2,500 kg to the GTO and satellites of up to 5,000 kg lift-off mass to the LEO. GSLV MK-II is a three-staged vehicle with first stage using solid rocket motor, second stage using Liquid fuel and the third stage, called Cryogenic Upper Stage, using cryogenic engine.

GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

10 facts you about ISRO’s GSLV-Mk III

The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle-Mark III (GSLV-Mk III), the heaviest rocket ever made by India and capable of carrying large payloads, is set for launch from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota on June 5, 2017.

Here are a few facts you need to know about the rocket.

1. GSKV-Mk III is capable of launching four-tonne satellites in the Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO).

2. The rocket is also capable of placing up to eight tonnes in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO), enough to carry a manned module.

3. GSLV-Mk III’s first developmental flight, D1, will carry on June 5 the GSAT-19 satellite — developed to help improve telecommunication and broadcasting areas.

4. This is India’s first fully functional rocket to be tested with a cryogenic engine that uses liquid propellants — liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

5. It took about 25 years, 11 flights and over 200 tests on different components of the rocket for it to be fully realised.

6. The 640-tonne rocket, equal to the weight of 200 fully-grown Asian elephants, is the country’s heaviest but shortest rocket with a height of 43 metre.

7. GSLV-Mk III is a three-stage vehicle with two solid motor strap-ons (S200), a liquid propellant core stage (L110) and a cryogenic stage (C-25).

8. ISRO successfully conducted the static test of its largest solid booster S200 at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), Sriharikota on January 24, 2010. The successful test of S200, which forms the strap-on stage for the GSLV, makes it the third largest solid booster in the world. The static test of liquid core stage (L110) of GSLV-Mk III launch vehicle was done at ISRO’s Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre test facility as early as March 2010.

9. C-25, the large cryogenic upper stage of the GSLV, is the most difficult component of the launch vehicle to be developed. ISRO successfully ground-tested the indigenously developed C-25 on February 18, 2017.

10. If successful, the GSLV-Mk III — earlier named as Launch Vehicle Mark-3 or LVM-3 — could be India’s vehicle of choice to launch people into space.

GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

Cabinet approves construction of 10 units of India’s indigenous Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR)

1- The total installed capacity of the Plants will be 7000 MW.
2- India has current installed nuclear power capacity of 6780 MW from 22 operational plants.
3- Another 6700 MWs of nuclear power is expected to come onstream by 2021-22 through projects presently under construction.

What is pressurised heavy water reactor?

1- PHWR uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
2- The heavy water coolant is kept under pressure, allowing it to be heated to higher
temperatures without boiling, much as in a pressurized water reactor.
3- While heavy water is significantly more expensive than ordinary light water, it creates greatly enhanced neutron economy, allowing the reactor to operate without fuel-enrichment facilities (offsetting the additional expense of the heavy water) and enhancing the ability of the reactor to make use of alternate fuel cycles.

Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

  • The PWR uses regular water as a coolant.
  • The primary cooling water is kept at very high pressure so it does not boil.
  • In a PWR, the primary coolant (water) is pumped under high pressure to the reactor core where it is heated by the energy generated by the fission of atoms.
  • The heated water then flows to a steam generator where it transfers its thermal energy to a secondary system where steam is generated and flows to turbines which, in turn, spin an electric generator.
GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

Everything you need to know about the global ransomware attack

What is WannaCry?

First and foremost, let’s clarify exactly what WannaCry is. This malware is a scary type of trojan virus called “ransomware.” As the name suggests, the virus in effect holds the infected computer hostage and demands that the victim pay a ransom in order to regain access to the files on his or her computer.

What exactly does WannaCry do?

RansomWare like WannaCry works by encrypting most or even all of the files on a user’s computer. Then, the software demands that a ransom be paid in order to have the files decrypted. In the case of WannaCry specifically, the software demands that the victim pays a ransom of $300 in bitcoins at the time of infection. If the user doesn’t pay the ransom without three days, the amount doubles to $600. After seven days without payment, WannaCry will delete all of the encrypted files and all data will be lost.

How can I protect myself from WannaCry?

Regardless of which operating system you run, you should install any and all available security updates immediately. Specifically, Windows users with machines that run Windows XP, Windows 8, or Windows Server 2003 should immediately install this security update released on Friday by Microsoft.

What can I do if my computer is infected with WannaCry?

Sadly, there is no fix for WannaCry available at this time. Antivirus companies and cybersecurity experts are hard at work looking for ways to decrypt files on infected computers, but no means of third-party decryption are available right now. Hopefully affected users have backups of their data available, because the only other option right now is to follow the instructions offered in the software to pay the ransom.

INDIA TARGETED

India was among the countries worst affected by the Wanna Cry attack, data shared by Kaspersky, a Russian anti-virus company, showed. According to initial calculations performed soon after the malware struck on Friday night, around five per cent of all computers affected in the attack were in India.

What else can I do?

Once ransomware has encrypted your files there’s not a lot you can do. If you have a backup of the files you should be able to restore them after cleaning the computer, but if not your files could be gone for good.

How long will this attack last?

Ransomware often has a short shelf life. As anti-virus vendors cotton on to new versions of the malware, they are able to prevent infections originating and spreading, leading to developers attempting “Big Bang” introductions like the one currently under way.

Will they get away with it?

Bitcoin, the payment medium through which the hackers are demanding payment, is difficult to trace, but not impossible, and the sheer scale of the attack means that law enforcement in multiple countries will be looking to see if they can follow the money back to the culprits.

Editorials, GS-3, Science & Tech

Voluntary Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme (V-VMP)

The road transport and highways minister, in May 2016, released the first draft of the proposed Voluntary Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme (V-VMP).

  • The programme proposes to offer tax benefits and discounts to people who junk old vehicles and replace them with new ones. Its primary intention is to reduce emissions and the priority is to get old fuel-guzzling and polluting trucks off the roads.

What has happened now?

Finance ministry has raised objections over few provisions in the scheme. These include provisions related to:

  • Number of vehicles to be scrapped.
  • Excise duty exemption.
  • Infrastructure creation.
  • Investments

Why Finance Ministry is opposing?

The scheme takes 28 million vehicles off the road and according to the Finance Ministry it is difficult to provide exemptions or rebates to such a huge number of vehicle owners. Besides, it would also lead to a financial burden on the government.

What’s the issue now?

Road transport and highway minister Nitin Gadkari is all set to make another attempt to convince finance minister Arun Jaitley to approve the Voluntary Vehicle Fleet Modernization Programme (V-VMP) in its current form.

What is V-VMP?

It is a policy proposed by the Road Ministry aimed at pushing 28 million decade-old polluting vehicles off the road. The policy aims at incentivising people to retire their old vehicles that were bought before March 2005 or are below BS IV standards.

  • As per the proposed policy, vehicles bought prior to March 31, 2005 or those below BS IV emission standards would be eligible for incentives if those were scrapped and replaced by new ones.
  • A fair value for the scrap, excise duty at 50% of the normal rate on the new vehicle and special discounts from automobile manufacturers are on cards for those who participate.
  • The incentives are expected to reduce the cost of a new vehicle for a buyer on an average 8-12%.
  • The policy recommends complete excise exemption for state transport buses to encourage public transport to shift to newer and higher capacity buses which will also help decongest roads.

Why it is needed?

Analysis of segment and age of vehicles causing air pollution has shown that MHCVs (Medium & Heavy Commercial Vehicles) constitute just 2.5% of the total fleet but contribute to 60% of pollution.

Besides, the older vehicles, typically more than 10 years of age and pre-BS I compliant, constitute 15% of the total fleet but pollute 10-12 times more than a new vehicle because of drastic change in pollution norms.
1a-1

 

Incentives proposed:

Under V-VMP, the road ministry has proposed that vehicle owners scrapping their old vehicles will get monetary incentives to buy a new vehicle in three forms to aid adoption of this programme:

  1. Scrap value from old vehicle.
  2. Automobile manufacturers’ special discount.
  3. Partial excise duty exemption.

Other details:

  • The scheme will focus initially on incentivising buyers of new commercial vehicle and keep passenger vehicles out of its ambit. It also won’t cover two-wheelers in the first phase.
  • Given that commercial vehicles change hands two to three times during their lifecycle, the government is also working out ways to issue tradeable certificates which would incentivise the last owner to scrap the truck and subsidise the purchase of the primary buyer. This will create a win-win situation for all stakeholders and make the overall dynamics of commercial vehicle trade more vibrant.
  • Under the plan, those opting for V-VMP will have to deposit documents relating to the vehicle at the recycling centre. After verification, the owner will get a VVMP certificate and the price for the scrap. He has to provide the certificate to the dealer while buying the new vehicle to avail of the discount.
    2a-1

 

Why it is a good scheme?

  • The scheme has the potential to reduce the vehicular emission by 25-30% and saving oil consumption by 3.2 billion liters per year. The reducing in oil consumption by new vehicles will help save nearly Rs 7,000 crore in oil import.
  • Implementation of the scheme for trucks and buses would result in 17% reduction in CO emissions, 18% reduction in HC+NOx emissions and 24% reduction in PM emissions.
  • Also, the policy would boost sales of automobile manufacturers leading to higher production capacity utilisation and the automobile manufacturers would support the government in this initiative “financially by giving special discounts to customers buying vehicles under this scheme”.
  • Besides reducing emissions, it generates steel scrap worth Rs. 11, 500 annually, reducing steel import burden.
    4a-1

 

3a-1

Way ahead:

Road Ministry will clarify before the Finance Ministry that in the first phase, the target would be just medium and heavy vehicles which are just 1.2 million as compared to finance ministry’s estimate of 28 million.

As far as revenue loss on excise duty is concerned, Road Ministry will try to convince Finance Ministry, stating that with the old vehicles running on road, the revenue loss would be more. If the new vehicles are purchased, at least there would be some additional revenue for the government.

Similar experiments in other countries:

A scheme known as Cash for clunkers has been implemented across the globe in countries like the UK, US, Germany, France and Spain, for limited periods during the global recession of 2009, in a bid to drive sales in the domestic auto industry. The government buys up some of the oldest, most polluting vehicles and scraps them.

  • In the US, cash for clunkers was introduced during the recession and was an attempt to stoke growth within the economy. the scheme was tailor made in such a way that it also incentivised the US consumer to shift away from gas guzzlers.
  • Under the UK car scrappage scheme, a £2,000 incentive was paid to motorists who scrap cars registered before 31 August 1999 to buy a new car. The government contributed £1,000 and the remaining amount came from the dealers and manufacturers.
  • China substituted an estimated 2.7 million high polluters from the national car fleet by offering rebates of $450 to $900 from June 2009 to May 2010 while Indonesia launched a scrappage scheme in 2009 paying owners of vehicles at least 10 years old MR5,000 ($1,354) was shared equally by the government and auto makers.
GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

China launches world’s first quantum communications satellite to develop hack-proof tech

China recently launched the first-ever quantum satellite. The satellite is named “Micius“.

  • Many countries are working on quantum communications, including fiber-optic quantum key distribution networks in the United States, Europe, and China. However, China is the first one to launch a satellite to develop the complex technology.
  • The 500 kg satellite contains a quantum key communicator, quantum entanglement emitter, entanglement source, processing unit, and a laser communicator. A rocket named the Long March-2D launched the satellite into space. The launch site was in China’s northwest Gobi Desert.
  • The satellite is built to circle Earth at an altitude of around 310 miles (500 km) and complete one lap every 90 minutes.

 

Aims of this mission:

  • It is a proof-of-concept mission designed to facilitate quantum optics experiments over long distances to allow the development of quantum encryption and quantum teleportation technology.
  • The satellite’s two-year mission will be to develop ‘hack-proof’ quantum communications, allowing users to send messages securely and at speeds faster than light.
  • The scientific goals are to implement a series of science missions between Quantum Science Satellite and quantum communication ground stations.

 

The major tasks are as follows:

Quantum Key Distribution from Satellite to Ground: To set up an ultra-long-range quantum channel between ground and satellite with the assistance of high-precision acquisition, tracking and pointing system, implement a quantum key distribution between the satellite and the ground stations, and carry out unconditional secure quantum communication experiments.

Global Scale Quantum Communication Network: To set up a real wide-area network for quantum communication using the satellite repeater and two arbitrary quantum ground stations and their auxiliary local-area fiber quantum networks.

Quantum Entanglement Distribution from Satellite to two ground stations: Distribution of quantum entangled photons from the satellite to two distant ground stations whose distance is larger than one thousand kilometers; test of the entanglement properties at a large scale and nonlocality of quantum mechanics.

Quantum Teleportation from Ground to Satellite: as a totally new way of communication, quantum teleportation is the fundamental process of quantum networks and quantum computing. A high quality quantum entanglement source on the ground will be built to achieve ground-to-satellite teleportation experiments based on photon entanglement.

 

Significance of this launch:

This is an attempt to develop a hack-proof communications system. During its two-year mission the space object will transmit un-hackable encryption keys from outer space to the Earth’s surface. If the experiment works it could solve the main problem of distributing encryption keys that cannot be stolen. That would result in hack-proof communications.

It will also provide new knowledge about quantum entanglement. That happens when pairs or groups of very tiny particles are made or work together so the quantum state of each particle is part of a whole system.

 

How the satellite operates?

QUESS will use entangled photons via a special laser to transmit messages to ground stations in China and Austria. In theory such systems are safe from hack attacks. An attempt to intercept an encryption key would cause a change in the photons’ state that could be picked up.

  • The special kind of laser has several curious properties, one of which is known as “the observer effect” – its quantum state cannot be observed without changing it.
  • So, if the satellite were to encode an encryption key in that quantum state, any interception would be obvious. It would also change the key, making it useless.
  • Highly complex attempts to build such a “hack-proof” communications network are based on the scientific principle of entanglement.

 

What Is Quantum Entanglement?

Quantum entanglement is one of the central principles of quantum physics. In short, quantum entanglement means that multiple particles are linked together in a way such that the measurement of one particle’s quantum state determines the possible quantum states of the other particles.

  • This connection is independent of the location of the particles in space. Even if you separate entangled particles by billions of miles, changing one particle will induce a change in the other. Even though quantum entanglement appears to transmit information instantaneously, it doesn’t actually violate the classical speed of light because there’s no “movement” through space.
  • It is hence difficult to wiretap, intercept or crack the information transmitted through it.

quantum

So what exactly is a quantum-enabled satellite?

It contains a laser that transmits a pair of entangled photons – minuscule sub-atomic particles of light – down to two separate base stations.

  • One half of the pair goes to one base station, the other to the second.
  • These photons suffer from something known as the ‘observer effect’, which means that the moment anyone tries to intercept them, their quantum state is immediately changed.

What are the applications?

In the face of ever more powerful hacking and surveillance – which could one day also include powerful quantum computers – the security of commercial communications is also increasingly important. Hence, Quantum computing is largely seen as the next big thing in communications. The technology has applications for precision in everything from healthcare to industrial production.

 

Conclusion:

Cybersecurity has been a major focus in recent years for China. Quantum messaging could become a major defense against hackers and have applications ranging from military and government communications to online shopping.

GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

Indians online to hit 730 mn by 2020

As per the report ‘The Future of Internet in India’, compiled by Nasscom and Akamai Technologies, the number of Internet users in India is likely to more than double to 730 million by 2020. As of December 2015, there were about 330 million Internet users in the country.

Highlights of the report:

  • India, which has an Internet user base next only to China, will remain the fastest growing market.
  • 75% of the new users would come from rural areas and a majority of new users are expected to consume data in local languages.
  • Overall, the e-commerce market in India, which was valued at $17 billion in 2015-16, is expected to double to $34 billion by 2020. The number of online shoppers is likely to more than triple to 175 million in that time, from 50 million in 2015.
  • By 2020, India will have an estimated 702 million smartphones in use and mobile phones will emerge as the preferred device for shopping, accounting for 70% of total online shopping.
  • Currently, online ticketing and room booking facilities are used by more than 50 million Indians on a regular basis. By 2020, online travel is estimated to account for 40-50% of all travel-related transactions, up from 12% in 2015. The growth is being driven by demand as a larger, younger population comes online.
  • In 2016, the fintech market will be worth $8 billion, having grown 20%.

Way ahead:

India’s Internet consumption has already exceeded the U.S. to become number two globally. By 2020, the Internet is expected to penetrate deeper in the hinterlands of the country, helping create more opportunities for everyone. This will also present a great opportunity for enterprises to harness the power of the Internet to innovate and scale up operations.

Editorials, GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

India’s eye in the sky

NAVIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation), India’s indigenous global navigation satellite system, is expected to become fully operational from this month.

What is NAVIC?

NAVIC is an independent regional navigation satellite system designed to provide position information in the Indian region and 1500 km around the Indian mainland.

What all services are provided?

navic3
Its applications include:IRNSS would provide two types of services, namely Standard Positioning Services available to all users and Restricted Services provided to authorised users.

  • Terrestrial, Aerial and Marine Navigation.
  • Disaster Management.
  • Vehicle tracking and fleet management.
  • Integration with mobile phones.
  • Precise Timing.
  • Mapping and Geodetic data capture.
  • Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travelers.
  • Visual and voice navigation for drivers.

How is India going in a global context?

India has been making great progress in space and research fields. Indian GPS would certainly boost country’s credentials in this field. India becomes only the fifth entity to have a GPS system of their own. Apart from India, US has Global Positioning System (GPS), Russia has Glonass, Europe has Galileo and China has BeiDou as their navigational systems. NAVIC will reduce the dependencies on the other systems for the country. That means that even in a war-like situation there would be no interruption of the information.

How many satellites does NAVIC consist of? When were they launched?

IRNSS is a regional system and so its constellation will consist of seven satellites. Three of these will be geostationary over the Indian Ocean, i.e., they will appear to be stationary in the sky over the region, and four will be geosynchronous – appearing at the same point in the sky at the same time every day. This configuration ensures each satellite is being tracked by at least one of fourteen ground stations at any given point of time, with a high chance of most of them being visible from any point in India. IRNSS satellites are numbered from 1A to 1G.

Why it is necessary to have indigenous global navigation system?

Having a global navigation system bolsters the ability of a nation to serve as a net security provider, especially through the guarantee of such assurance policies. It can also play a significant role in relief efforts post disasters such as the tsunami in the Indian Ocean region in 2004 and the Pakistan-India earthquake in 2005.
navic2

Through land-area mapping, yield monitoring and precision-planting of crops, NAVIC allows for the development of civic capabilities in food and livelihood security.Potential applications of NAVIC:

  • NAVIC also arrives as an instrument for environmental and meteorological monitoring, as well as climate research. These capabilities can be leveraged to design reliable and efficient response mechanisms for natural disasters, alleviating the devastation they wreak through well-managed disaster relief.
  • NAVIC’s interoperability with GPS can ensure the minimization of technical snags when used complementarily with existing GPS-enabled solutions.
  • Chief beneficiary of Navic is the military, which now has access to an encrypted and completely secure service. The forces will no longer have to depend on the US service, a weakness that was exposed during the Kargil conflict of 1999, when accurate GPS data on the region was not forthcoming in real time.
  • Navic will offer public access to an unsecured service for civilian applications like logistics, transportation, vehicle automation, robotics, disaster management, prospecting, the tracking of vehicles, people, pets and the Internet of Things. This could trigger a boom in GPS applications tuned to Navic.
  • This could also provide an occasion for hardware manufacturers to turn protectionist and urge government to force manufacturers of GPS products to patronise the Indian service.

How this would improve bilateral relations?

Building on India’s offering of assistance to Pakistan during the floods in Pakistan-occupied Kashmir and other areas in 2014, NAVIC could establish a tradition of regional monitoring whereby India leverages its technological edge to safeguard citizens across the subcontinent. Such gestures could blunt the adversarial nature of Indo-Pakistan relations in the long run, signalling to the region and the globe alike that India values human security despite prevailing gridlock in strategic relations. NAVIC might even go some way to mend and meliorate relations with a guarded Islamabad.

Charting out growth routes for South Asian economies, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (Saarc) governments can also welcome the launch of NAVIC as an opening shot to accelerated innovation. NAVIC should also propel technological innovations and spin-offs that render South Asia progressively less reliant on technological imports from the West and elsewhere.

Conclusion:

Now, India should work to shift the regional frame of mind from defence thinking to subcontinental cooperation, pushing back against isolationist impulses that stand in the way of realizing the civilian and commercial promise of NAVIC. An ability to integrate space infrastructure into the Indian state apparatus has fortunate ripple effects beyond Indian borders. In dedicating itself to exploring and actualizing the civilian and commercial potential of NAVIC, India can signal to its regional partners that its rise is not only passively peaceful but also directly beneficial to those it can lift up in its tide.

GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

Soon, postman will also deliver Ganga Jal

The Hindu

News:

  • Postal department might soon deliver water from the Ganga river to your doorstep.
  • Ganges which is considered holy by the Hindus.
  • Communications and IT Minister directed the Department of Posts to utilise e-commerce platform so that pure Ganga Jal from Haridwar and Rishikesh can be provided to the people.

 

E-governance app

  • Government is also working on a single mobile application through which citizens would be able to access over 1,000 e-governance services provided by the Centre, State governments as well as local authorities.
  • The new application UMANG — short for Unified Mobile App for New-age Governance — will be available in 12 Indian languages, besides English.
  • This application will be a game changer… a common mobile application for all government services.

 

Smartphones for postmen:

  • By March 2017, all postmen in urban centres will be given smartphones, while those in around 1.3 lakh rural post offices will be given handheld devices.
  • About 4,000 handheld devices have already been given.
  • It will help in financial inclusion.
GS-3, Science & Tech, Uncategorized

Cloud technology changing TV ad landscape

The Hindu

Issue

  • Geo-targeted advertising.

Geo targeting

  • Geo targeting in geomarketing and internet marketing is the method of determining the geolocation of a website visitor and delivering different content to that visitor based on his or her location, such as country, region/state, city, metro code/zip code, organization, IP address, ISP or other criteria.

Geo targeted advertisements on Television channels

  • Around 25 news and entertainment channels are beaming region-specific ads.
  • With the trend of geo-targeted advertising catching on, more companies are making use of technology to beam adverts to only areas where their products have strong presence.

How do they do it?

  • Normally, local cable operators have decoder boxes for each channel that receive and relay the programmes to households.
  • To enable geo-targeted advertising these boxes are replaced with smart boxes that not only store data but also intelligently identify the spot where the location-specific ad has to replace the nationally telecast one.
  • The trigger for the geo-targeted ad comes from a unique watermark inserted on the video, which gives the cue to the smart box to run the local ad.
  • Watermark is an invisible and inaudible identifier, like a product barcode.

Cloud computing

Cloud computing is a type of computing that relies on sharing computing resources rather than having local servers or personald evices to handle applications.

Cloud computing is comparable to grid computing, a type of computing where unused processing cycles of all computers in a network are harnesses to solve problems too intensive for any stand-alone machine.

In cloud computing, the word cloud (also phrased as “the cloud”) is used as a metaphor for “the Internet,” so the phrase cloud computing means “a type of Internet-based computing,” where different services — such as servers, storage and applications —are delivered to an organization’s computers and devices through the Internet.