Public Administration

Human Resource Development:

Human resources development (HRD) refers to the vast field of training and development provided by organizations to increase the knowledge, skills, education, and abilities of their employees. (It’s also referred to as training and development.) In many organizations, the human resources development process begins upon the hiring of a new employee and continues throughout that employee’s tenure with the organization.

HR development is designed to give employees the information they need to adapt to that organization’s culture and to do their jobs effectively.

The purpose of HR development is to provide the ‘coaching’ needed to strengthen and grow the knowledge, skills, and abilities that an employee already has. The goal of development and training is to make employees even better at what they do.

Human resources management of a company is often an independent department of its own composed of various sections including recruitment and retention, performance and appraisal management, HRD and compensation sections. But HRD does not only focus on development of skills but also focuses on the personal development of employees. Because peoples’ needs and expectations are ever growing and changing this section of HRM is specifically there to help employees cope with such and prepare them for future uncertainties.

1. HRD is a sub section of HRM, i.e. HRD is a section with the department of HRM.
2.HRM deals with all aspects of the human resources function while HRD only deals with the development part.
3.HRM is concerned with recruitment, rewards among others while HRD is concerned with employee skills development.
4.HRM functions are mostly formal while HRD functions can be informal like mentorships


HRD is needed by any organisation that wants to be dynamic and growth-oriented or to succeed in a fast-changing environment. Organisations can become dynamic and grow only through the efforts and competencies of their human resources. Personnel policies can keep the morale and motivation of employees high, but these efforts are not enough to make the organisation dynamic and take it in new directions. Employee capabilities must continuously be acquired, sharpened, and used. For this purpose, an “enabling” organisational culture is essential. When employees use their initiative, take risks, experiment, innovate, and make things happen, the organisation may be said to have an “enabling” culture.

Even an organisation that has reached its limit of growth, needs to adapt to the changing environment. No organisation is immune to the need for processes that help to acquire and increase its capabilities for stability and renewal.

Features of Human Resource development

The essential features of human resource development can be listed as follows:

  • Human resource development is a process in which employees of the organisations are recognized as its human resource. It believes that human resource is most valuable asset of the organisation.
  • It stresses on development of human resources of the organisation. It helps the employees of the organisation to develop their general capabilities in relation to their present jobs and expected future role.
  • It emphasise on the development and best utilization of the capabilities of individuals in the interest of the employees and organisation.
  • It helps is establishing/developing better inter-personal relations. It stresses on developing relationship based on help, trust and confidence.
  • It promotes team spirit among employees.
  • It tries to develop competencies at the organisation level. It stresses on providing healthy climate for development in the organisation.
  • HRD is a system. It has several sub-systems. All these sub-systems are inter-related and interwoven. It stresses on collaboration among all the sub-systems.
  • It aims to develop an organisational culture in which there is good senior-subordinate relations, motivation, quality and sense of belonging.
  • It tries to develop competence at individual, inter-personal, group and organisational level to meet organisational goal.
  • It is an inter-disciplinary concept. It is based on the concepts, ideas and principles of sociology, psychology, economics etc.
  • It form on employee welfare and quality of work life. It tries to examine/identify employee needs and meeting them to the best possible extent.
  • It is a continuous and systematic learning process. Development is a life long process, which never ends.

Benefits of Human Resource Development

Human resource development now a days is considered as the key to higher productivity, better relations and greater profitability for any organisation. Appropriate HRD provides unlimited benefits to the concerned organisation. Some of the important benefits are being given here:

  • HRD (Human Resource Development) makes people more competent. HRD develops new skill, knowledge and attitude of the people in the concern organisations.
  • With appropriate HRD programme, people become more committed to their jobs. People are assessed on the basis of their performance by having a acceptable performance appraisal system.
  • An environment of trust and respect can be created with the help of human resource development.
  • Acceptability toward change can be created with the help of HRD. Employees found themselves better equipped with problem-solving capabilities.
  • It improves the all round growth of the employees. HRD also improves team spirit in the organisation. They become more open in their behaviour. Thus, new values can be generated.
  • It also helps to create the efficiency culture In the organisation. It leads to greater organisational effectiveness. Resources are properly utilised and goals are achieved in a better way.
  • It improves the participation of worker in the organisation. This improve the role of worker and workers feel a sense of pride and achievement while performing their jobs.
  • It also helps to collect useful and objective data on employees programmes and policies which further facilitate better human resource planning.
  • Hence, it can be concluded that HRD provides a lot of benefits in every organisation. So, the importance of concept of HRD should be recognised and given a place of eminence, to face the present and future challenges in the organisation

Recruitment  In any governance system the quality of its public servants is critical and in this context recruitment of suitable persons is of great importance. Th ose aspiring to be civil servants must have not only the required skills and knowledge, but also the right values which would include integrity, commitment to public service and above all, commitment to the ideals and philosophy embodied in the Constitution.

Therefore the recruitment process, apart from being transparent, objective, fair and equitable should also ensure that the right type of persons join the civil services. The system of recruitment to the civil services in India has evolved over the years. Several changes have been made in the recruitment process, especially after Independence to reflect the needs of the administration from time to time.

A number of Committees and Commissions were set up to make recommendations on various aspects of recruitment.

  1. Report on Public Administration by A.D. Gorwala, 1951; (recommended that recruitment to all grades of Government service should be conducted in a manner which eliminates scope for patronage and suggested that this principle should also apply to temporary staff)
  2. Report on the Public Services (Qualifications for Recruitment) Committee, 1956 – also known as Dr. A. Ramaswami Mudaliar Committee Report; ( recommended that a University degree should be the minimum qualifi cation for recruitment into the higher services whereas for secretarial and ministerial services a University degree need not be insisted upon. Th is Committee also recommended that the age limit for the highest executive and administrative services should be kept between 21-23 years.)
  3. Report on Indian and State Administrative Services and Problems of District Administration by V.T. Krishnamachari, 1962; ( analysed the recruitments to Class I and Class II services in the State Governments and recommended that recruitments should be made annually.)
  4. ARC’s Report on Personnel Administration,1969;
  5. Report of the Committee on Recruitment Policy and Selection Methods, 1976 – also known as the D.S. Kothari Committee Report;
  6. Report of the Committee to Review the Scheme of the Civil Services Examination, 1989 – also known as the Satish Chandra Committee Report;
  7. Report of the Civil Services Examination Review Committee, 2001, also known as Professor Yoginder K. Alagh Committee Report;
  8. Report of the Committee on Civil Service Reforms also known as the Hota Committee Report, 2004.

Stage of Entry into the Civil Services (ARC 2 recommendation)

  1. Government of India should establish National Institutes of Public Administration to run Bachelor’s Degree courses in public administration/ governance/management. In the long run it is expected that these specialized centres of excellence (National Institutes of Public Administration) would evolve as major sources of civil services aspirants.
  2. Selected Central and other Universities should also be assisted to offer such graduate level programmes in public administration/governance/public management which will produce graduates to further expand the pool of eligible applicants to the civil services.
  3. The courses offered in these universities should include core subjects such as the Constitution of India, Indian legal system, administrative law, Indian economy, Indian polity, Indian history and culture apart from optional subjects.
  4. Graduates of the above mentioned special courses from the National Institutes of Public Administration and selected universities would be eligible for appearing in the Civil Services Examinations. Further, graduates in other disciplines would also be eligible to appear in the Civil Services Examination provided they complete a ‘Bridge Course’ in the core subjects mentioned above.
  5. Th e permissible age for appearing in the Civil Services Examination should be 21 to 25 years for general candidates, 21 to 28 years for candidates from OBC and 21 to 29 years for candidates from SC/ST as also for those who are physically challenged.
  6. The number of permissible attempts in the Civil Services Examination should be 3, 5, 6 and 6 respectively for general candidates, candidates from OBC, candidates from SC/ST and physically challenged candidates respectively

Other Modes of Induction into the Civil Services

  1. Th einduction of officers of the State Civil Services into the IAS should be done by the UPSC on the basis of a common examination.
  2. UPSC should conduct such an examination annually for officers from the State Civil Services who have completed 8 to 10 years of service in Grade ‘A’ posts. The eligibility criteria should also include norms such as an upper age limit of 40 years etc. On the basis of this examination, the UPSC should provide the State Governments with an eligibility list. Th e State Governments should fill up their quota for promotion to the IAS on the basis of this eligibility list. A maximum of two attempts should be allowed to an eligible candidate for taking this examination.

UPSC (Members) Status: 

  1. The Government has enhanced the status of Chairman and Members of the Commission and made them at par with Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners respectively w.e.f. 1st May, 2007.
  2. In accordance with the above decision, Hon’ble Chairman has been placed in Article 9A with Chief Election Commissioner and Hon’ble Members have been placed as Equivalents in Article 11 alongwith Election Commissioners, in the Warrant of Precedence.

Sensitivity training: Sensitivity training is a form of training with the goal of making people more aware of their own prejudices and more sensitive to others.

Sensitivity training is a type of group training that focuses on helping organizational members to develop a better awareness of group dynamics and their roles in the group. The training often addresses issues such as gender and multicultural sensitivity as well as sensitivity towards the disabled. The goal of the training is focused on individual growth. Kurt Lewin and Ronald Lippitt originally developed the technique in the 1940s.

The Importance of Sensitivity Training

The contemporary workplace is very diverse and is becoming more so every day. Managers need to understand, be sensitive, and be able to adapt to the various needs, concerns, and characteristics of a multitude of different people. Sensitivity training will help managers to personally cultivate good interpersonal relationships with members of their team and help facilitate respective and productive group relations among team members.

1.What is the Performance Monitoring and Evaluation System (PMES)?

This is a system to both “evaluate” and “monitor” the performance of Government departments. Evaluation involves comparing the actual achievements of a department against the annual targets. In doing so, an evaluation exercise judges the ability of the department to deliver results on a scale ranging from excellent to poor. Monitoring involves keeping a tab on the progress made by departments towards their annual targets.

PMES takes a comprehensive view of departmental performance by measuring performance of all schemes and projects (iconic and non-iconic) and all relevant aspects of expected departmental deliverables such as: financial, physical, quantitative, qualitative, static efficiency (short run) and dynamic efficiency (long run). By focusing on areas that are within the control of the department, PMES also ensures fairness and high levels of motivation.

At the beginning of each financial year, with the approval of the Minister concerned, each department prepares a Results-Framework Document (RFD) consisting of the priorities set out by the Minister concerned, agenda as spelt out in the party manifesto if any, President’s Address, announcements/agenda as spelt out by the Government from time to time. The Minister In-charge decidesthe inter-se priority among the departmental objectives.