Q- PERT is used for the improvement of administration efficiency and economy, up to what extent it is helpful to improve 2Es. Critically examine.
Since the Wilson’s political-administration dichotomy era to Osborne’s ‘reinventing government’ efficiency has been in one of the central theme of PA. Information technology revolution has brought out radical changes in the administration. It has made administration more efficient by furnishing high level of information for decision making process.
PERT is a network technique for project management in a time bound and cost-conscious manner. They are useful for planning and control of complex projects involving a large no. of activities, huge costs and considerable time.
It is designed with system perspective by taking into consideration the network of processes, resource flows etc. PERT recognizes the inter-related nature of elements within large work projects.
According to Simon, decision making can be rational only when it is based on efficient information regarding alternatives and knowledge about outcomes. This process is made easier with adoption of new techniques of management like PERT, CPM, MIS.
It identifies whether tasks can be performed simultaneously or sequentially. It makes every manager aware about his responsibilities in advance. Managers can simulate the effect of alternative decisions on paper hence ensures improved management of resources.
PERT focuses on rationalizing the time uncertainty associated with completion of projects by considering 3 time estimates- optimistic, pessimistic and normal. It helps in deciding viability of long gestation period projects. esp. in our country where most of infrastructure projects shoot their cost because of poor planning.
The technique has wide ranging application in business and non-business organisations but there are some problems associated in application as difficulty of estimating time span for each activity. Application of this technique requires objective knowledge of all the factors involved in the system, this demands proper training, knowledge and experience. Private organisations are increasingly using these sophisticated tools for planning but government organisations are yet to catch the momentum.
Management Information System: MIS
Information technology revolution has brought out radical changes in the administration. It has made administration more efficient by furnishing high level of information for decision making process.
According to Simon, decision making can be rational only when it is based on efficient information regarding alternatives and knowledge about outcomes. This process is made easier with adoption of new techniques of management like MIS, PERT, CPM. (Management Information System, Program Evaluation and Review Technique, Critical Path Method).
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MIS is a new entrant to the discipline of management covering the all aspects of application of technology, procedure, and people to solve business problems.
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MIS consists of collecting, processing, storing, retrieving and transmitting information that is required by mangers in performing their functions. The role of MIS is to systematically generate relevant data which is useful to managers in decision making. It enables the managers to improve the quality and timeliness of their decisions and to systemize their day-to-day functioning in general.
Another role of MIS is to provide only that much information that is required by the managers for the purpose of decision making. This means that the question of information overload does not arise and only optimum information is provided. Thus there is desired degree of focus and selectivity in the information content.
MIS in many large organisations is designed with a system perspective by taking into consideration the network of processes, resource flows and information needs of the organisation. Often managers at many levels are involved and consulted in the design and implementation of MIS. These steps are needed to make the role of MIS rooted in the realities and requirements of the organisation.
MIS may be manual, mechanized or computerized but there is a relative advantage in computerized MIS especially in large organisations. The role of MIS gets enlarged both in scope and quality in computerized setting. It adds to the alertness, awareness and intelligence of managers by supplying the required information and avoiding overlapping information.